Introduction to Patho and Pharm

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Author:
scbtmed
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145294
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Introduction to Patho and Pharm
Updated:
2012-04-02 17:44:31
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Patho Pharm
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SOCM 3-12
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  1. A drug pertaining to the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system which uses E or nE as neurotransmitters
    Adregenic
  2. The drugs propensity to bind or attach itself to a given receptor site
    Affinity
  3. A drug or substance having a specific cellular affinity that produces a predictable response
    Agonist
  4. The opposition of effects between two or more medications occuring when the comboined effect of the two drugs is less than the sum of the drugs acting separately
    Antagonist
  5. A process whereby a drug is chemically converted to another chemical compound (usually a more water-soluble)
    Biotransformation/metabolism
  6. Peratining to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers which use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter
    Cholinergic
  7. Pertaining to the agents that effect the heart rate
    Chronotropic
  8. An agent with an affinity for the same receptor site as an agonist, these usually have a higher affinity for the receptor than the agonist.
    Competitive antagonist
  9. Pertaining to agents that affect conduction velocity through the conducting tissues of the hear.
    Dromotropic
  10. The ability of a drug to produce the desired therapeutic effect
    efficacy
  11. An abnormal or peculiar response to a drug (accounts for ___ to ___% of all drug reactions)
    idiosyncratic reaction
  12. Pertaining to the force or energy of muscular contrations, particulary those of the heart.
    Inotropic
  13. An agent that combines with different parts of the receptor site and inactivates it.
    Noncompetitive antagonist
  14. An agent with affinity and some efficacy but that may antagonize the action of other drugs with greater efficacy. May have same structural similarities with their agonists.
    Partial antagonist
  15. The study of the detailed mechanism of action by which a drug produces the effect. (what the drug does to the body or pathogen)
    Pharmacodynamics
  16. The study of drug disposition in the body and focuses on changes in the drug plasma concentration (what the body does to the drug)
    Pharmacokinetics
  17. Inadequately treated symptoms provoke manipulative behaviors in patients desparate for relief
    Pseudoaddiction
  18. Any substance organism or process that causes malformations or death to a fetus
    Tetatogenic
  19. A side effects which proves harmful to the patient
    untoward effect
  20. Volume in which the total amount of the drug would need to be uniformly distributed to produce the desired blood concentration of a drug
    Volume of distribution
  21. What are some sources of drugs?
    Plants, animals and humans, minerals, microorganisms, chemical substances.
  22. Official name of a medication is followed by what?
    USP or NF
  23. When does a nonproprietary name become official?
    When recognized by the FDA or USP
  24. Which was the initial law to control sales of narcotics and help curb addiction, turned the word "narcotic" into a legal term
    Harrison Narcotic act of 1914
  25. What act superceded the Harrison act and classified controlled substances and categories?
    CSA (controlled substances act) or Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
  26. What Schedule drug has a High abuse potential and no accepted medical uses.
    Schedule 1
  27. What Schedule drug has a high abuse potential, has accepted medical use and may lead to severe physical or psychological dependence.

    Must have warning label

    No refills allowed
    Schedule 2
  28. Which Schedule has less abuse potential with an accepted medical use. May lead to moderate to low physical or high psychological dependence.

    Written or oral prescription required
    Schedule 3
  29. Which schedule has a lower abuse potential and with accepted medical uses.

    May lead to physical or psychological dependence.
    Schedule 4
  30. Which has the lowest abuse potential. Has acecepted medical uses and may lead to limited physical or physiological dependence

    Can be sold without prescription
    Schedule 5
  31. What pregnancy category is safe and has adequate and well controlled studies which have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (no risk in later trimesters)
    Category A
  32. What pregnancy category does ANIMAL reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.
    Category B
  33. What pregancy category has shown an adverse effect of animal reproduction but there are no adequate and well controlled studies in humans.
    Category C
  34. What category is there POSITIVE evidence of fetal risk based on adverse reaction date from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans. Potential benefits may warrant use of drugs in women tho. Derp
    Category D
  35. What category do studies in humans and animals have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and there is fetal risk and the risks involved in the use of the drug in pregnant women CLEARLY outweigh the potential benefits
    Category X
  36. What kind of medical preparation liquid is a fat or oil sustpended in liquir with an emulsifier
    Emulsion
  37. What is a spirit
    an alcohol solution
  38. What is an aromatic sweetened alcohol and water solution
    Elixir
  39. What is an alcohol extract of plant or vegetable substance
    Tincture
  40. What is a concentrated alcoholic liquid extract of plant or vegetable?
    Fluid extract.
  41. What is syrup or dried form of pharmacologically active drug, usually prepared by evaporating solution.
    Extract
  42. What type of medication preparation are medicated tablets that dissolve slowly from drug administration with our without liquids
    Troches or lozenges
  43. Loose or molded drug substances for drug administration, with or without liquids
    Powders or granules
  44. What is the gold standard for references to antimicrobial therapy.
    Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy
  45. Generally the IV dose is ____% of PO dose
    10%
  46. Always ID the pts information using..
    at least two forms Name and DOB!
  47. What type of medical administration route goes through the GI tract?
    Enteral
  48. What type of medication goes outside the GI tract?
    Parenteral
  49. The parameters that determine a drugs duration and intensity are divided into what four processses
    Absorption, distribution, biotransformation/metabolism and elimination
  50. The rate of absorption is dependent on what?
    The drug concentration gradient, thickness of barrier and surface area available
  51. The movement from general circulation through tissues to the site of action is?
    Distribution
  52. The concentration of a drug at a target site is dependent on what
    The volume of the body receiving it (volume of distribution) and the amount of drug given.
  53. Volume of distribution may be increased by what ?

    Decreased by what?
    Renal failure and liver failure

    Dehydration
  54. What processes decrease blood concentration?
    Biotransformation/metabolism

    Elimination
  55. Where does the vast majority of metabolism take place.
    How does it prepare a substance to be eliminated
    Liver

    Enzymes (metabolic pathways) to cause a chemical reaction that prepares the organic/chemical substance to be eliminated
  56. Where is the elimination of toxic or inactive metabolites, primarily done?
    The kidneys
  57. Drugs are eliminated through that processes?
    Glomerular Filtration

    Active Tubular Secretion

    Passive Tubular Reabsorption
  58. Describe absorption in the skin of a child
    Better perfusion and hydration, thinner stratum corneum

    Increased Absorption
  59. Describe intramuscular absorption in children
    Decreased absorption

    Decreased muscle mass and immature vasculariy
  60. Describe GI absorption in children
    Increased absorption

    • Slower paristalsis (more time for absorption)
    • Immature digestive system (but approaches adult values by 6-12 months)
  61. Describe water content in the body of a child pertaining to medications
    Increased water content which causes increased distribution
  62. Describe blood composition in pediatric patients
    Smaller amounts of albumin, more unbound drug and increased distribution

    This increases drug concentration
  63. Describe changes in pediatrics for metabolism in drugs?
    Enzymes in the bodyy are not developed (reduced metabolism)

    6-12 months they have an increased metabolism
  64. Describe changes in pediatrics in regards to differences in elimination during drugs
    Glomerular Filtration Rate is .5 adult values at birth and the pediatric nephrons dont become fully functional until 1 year

    Less frequent dosing may be needed to avoid toxicity
  65. What tool can be used for pediatrics what uses the patients height and/or weight, contains sizing for emergency equipment
    Broselow Tape
  66. Describe Body fat and lean muscle mass in Geriatrics
    Increased fat = increased volume of distribution

    Decreased muscle and body water content = Decreased volume of distribution
  67. Describe GI in geriatrics in regards to medications.
    • Decreased peristalsis- increased absorption
    • More contact time with intestinal mucosa
  68. Differences in drug metabolism for geriatrics with drugs
    Decreased hepatic blood flow and liver size (25-35%), decreaed bile flow

    Decreased metabolism
  69. Differences in elimination of medications for geriatrics
    Decreaed elimination

    Until age 60 kidney functions remain the same

    After 65 kidney functions greately decrease
  70. Most prescription drugs are what category?
    Category C
  71. What is the largest inhibitor of absorption in pregnanvy?
    Nausea and vomiting
  72. What occurs to elimination during pregnancy
    Renal blood flow increases 60-80% and GFR increases by 50% increasing elimination
  73. What are some genetic factors that could affect drug response?
    Some people produce either more or less enzymes which affect metabolism.

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