Introduction to Patho and Pharm
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A drug pertaining to the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system which uses E or nE as neurotransmitters
The drugs propensity to bind or attach itself to a given receptor site
A drug or substance having a specific cellular affinity that produces a predictable response
The opposition of effects between two or more medications occuring when the comboined effect of the two drugs is less than the sum of the drugs acting separately
A process whereby a drug is chemically converted to another chemical compound (usually a more water-soluble)
Peratining to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers which use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter
Pertaining to the agents that effect the heart rate
An agent with an affinity for the same receptor site as an agonist, these usually have a higher affinity for the receptor than the agonist.
Pertaining to agents that affect conduction velocity through the conducting tissues of the hear.
The ability of a drug to produce the desired therapeutic effect
An abnormal or peculiar response to a drug (accounts for ___ to ___% of all drug reactions)
Pertaining to the force or energy of muscular contrations, particulary those of the heart.
An agent that combines with different parts of the receptor site and inactivates it.
An agent with affinity and some efficacy but that may antagonize the action of other drugs with greater efficacy. May have same structural similarities with their agonists.
The study of the detailed mechanism of action by which a drug produces the effect. (what the drug does to the body or pathogen)
The study of drug disposition in the body and focuses on changes in the drug plasma concentration (what the body does to the drug)
Inadequately treated symptoms provoke manipulative behaviors in patients desparate for relief
Any substance organism or process that causes malformations or death to a fetus
A side effects which proves harmful to the patient
Volume in which the total amount of the drug would need to be uniformly distributed to produce the desired blood concentration of a drug
Volume of distribution
What are some sources of drugs?
Plants, animals and humans, minerals, microorganisms, chemical substances.
Official name of a medication is followed by what?
USP or NF
When does a nonproprietary name become official?
When recognized by the FDA or USP
Which was the initial law to control sales of narcotics and help curb addiction, turned the word "narcotic" into a legal term
Harrison Narcotic act of 1914
What act superceded the Harrison act and classified controlled substances and categories?
CSA (controlled substances act) or Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
What Schedule drug has a High abuse potential and no accepted medical uses.
What Schedule drug has a high abuse potential, has accepted medical use and may lead to severe physical or psychological dependence.
Must have warning label
No refills allowed
Which Schedule has less abuse potential with an accepted medical use. May lead to moderate to low physical or high psychological dependence.
Written or oral prescription required
Which schedule has a lower abuse potential and with accepted medical uses.
May lead to physical or psychological dependence.
Which has the lowest abuse potential. Has acecepted medical uses and may lead to limited physical or physiological dependence
Can be sold without prescription
What pregnancy category is safe and has adequate and well controlled studies which have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (no risk in later trimesters)
What pregnancy category does ANIMAL reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.
What pregancy category has shown an adverse effect of animal reproduction but there are no adequate and well controlled studies in humans.
What category is there POSITIVE evidence of fetal risk based on adverse reaction date from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans. Potential benefits may warrant use of drugs in women tho. Derp
What category do studies in humans and animals have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and there is fetal risk and the risks involved in the use of the drug in pregnant women CLEARLY outweigh the potential benefits
What kind of medical preparation liquid is a fat or oil sustpended in liquir with an emulsifier
What is a spirit
an alcohol solution
What is an aromatic sweetened alcohol and water solution
What is an alcohol extract of plant or vegetable substance
What is a concentrated alcoholic liquid extract of plant or vegetable?
What is syrup or dried form of pharmacologically active drug, usually prepared by evaporating solution.
What type of medication preparation are medicated tablets that dissolve slowly from drug administration with our without liquids
Troches or lozenges
Loose or molded drug substances for drug administration, with or without liquids
Powders or granules
What is the gold standard for references to antimicrobial therapy.
Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy
Generally the IV dose is ____% of PO dose
Always ID the pts information using..
at least two forms Name and DOB!
What type of medical administration route goes through the GI tract?
What type of medication goes outside the GI tract?
The parameters that determine a drugs duration and intensity are divided into what four processses
Absorption, distribution, biotransformation/metabolism and elimination
The rate of absorption is dependent on what?
The drug concentration gradient, thickness of barrier and surface area available
The movement from general circulation through tissues to the site of action is?
The concentration of a drug at a target site is dependent on what
The volume of the body receiving it (volume of distribution) and the amount of drug given.
Volume of distribution may be increased by what ?
Decreased by what?
Renal failure and liver failure
What processes decrease blood concentration?
Where does the vast majority of metabolism take place.
How does it prepare a substance to be eliminated
Enzymes (metabolic pathways) to cause a chemical reaction that prepares the organic/chemical substance to be eliminated
Where is the elimination of toxic or inactive metabolites, primarily done?
Drugs are eliminated through that processes?
Active Tubular Secretion
Passive Tubular Reabsorption
Describe absorption in the skin of a child
Better perfusion and hydration, thinner stratum corneum
Describe intramuscular absorption in children
Decreased muscle mass and immature vasculariy
Describe GI absorption in children
- Slower paristalsis (more time for absorption)
- Immature digestive system (but approaches adult values by 6-12 months)
Describe water content in the body of a child pertaining to medications
Increased water content which causes increased distribution
Describe blood composition in pediatric patients
Smaller amounts of albumin, more unbound drug and increased distribution
This increases drug concentration
Describe changes in pediatrics for metabolism in drugs?
Enzymes in the bodyy are not developed (reduced metabolism)
6-12 months they have an increased metabolism
Describe changes in pediatrics in regards to differences in elimination during drugs
Glomerular Filtration Rate is .5 adult values at birth and the pediatric nephrons dont become fully functional until 1 year
Less frequent dosing may be needed to avoid toxicity
What tool can be used for pediatrics what uses the patients height and/or weight, contains sizing for emergency equipment
Describe Body fat and lean muscle mass in Geriatrics
Increased fat = increased volume of distribution
Decreased muscle and body water content = Decreased volume of distribution
Describe GI in geriatrics in regards to medications.
- Decreased peristalsis- increased absorption
- More contact time with intestinal mucosa
Differences in drug metabolism for geriatrics with drugs
Decreased hepatic blood flow and liver size (25-35%), decreaed bile flow
Differences in elimination of medications for geriatrics
Until age 60 kidney functions remain the same
After 65 kidney functions greately decrease
Most prescription drugs are what category?
What is the largest inhibitor of absorption in pregnanvy?
Nausea and vomiting
What occurs to elimination during pregnancy
Renal blood flow increases 60-80% and GFR increases by 50% increasing elimination
What are some genetic factors that could affect drug response?
Some people produce either more or less enzymes which affect metabolism.
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