FW Ecology

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Author:
anime1003
ID:
145324
Filename:
FW Ecology
Updated:
2012-04-02 18:30:22
Tags:
Midterm
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Description:
Lecture 14-27
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  1. High Turbitiy
    few plants in the water
  2. Heporheos
    pore spaces in stream sediment
  3. DOM
    Dissolved organic Matter
  4. Low order streams are dominated by;
    • shredders
    • collectors
    • primary consumers
  5. Intermediate stream order dominated by:
    grazers
  6. Highest stream order dominated by;
    plankton
  7. Main sources of Organic Pollutions
    • Domestic Sewage
    • Urban Runoff
    • Industrial Effluents
    • Farm Waste
  8. Problems associated with Organic Polution
    • pathogens
    • Decrease O2
    • eutrophication
  9. Factors of Deoxygenation
    • 1. Amount of organic effluent entering the watercourse
    • 2. Discharge levels in watercourse (dilution)
    • 3. BOD of the effluent and the watercourse
    • 4. Temperature
    • 5. Microbial community
    • 6. Rate of aeration of watercourse
  10. 3 main treatments of wast water
    • pathogens
    • decreased oxygen
    • increased N and P
  11. 3 main stages of treatment
    • Physical filtering
    • Biological treatment (bacterium eat organics)
    • Tertiary treatment (removes phospahtes and nitrates)
  12. BOD
    Biological Oxygen Demand
  13. Effects of Hydrologic Alteration
    • 1) Habitat fragmentation
    • 2) Biological pollution- invasives
    • 3) Downstream habitat changes
    • 4) Deterioration of irrigated terrestrial environments
    • 5) De-watering of rivers leading to impaired water quality because point and nonpoint pollution cannot be diluted
    • 6) Impoundment or organic vegetation generates methyl mercury which contaminates the food web and methane and CO2 which contribute to global warming
  14. Impoundment and organic vegitation generates;
    Methly mercury and Methane
  15. Definition of Wetland
    : Land that is saturated with water long enough to promote wetland or aquatic processes as indicated by poorly drained soils, hydrophytic vegetation and various kinds of biological activity which are adapted to a wet environment
  16. swamp (different than wetland)
    dominated by woody shrubs
  17. Bogs
    doesn't have a mineral soil layer
  18. vernal pools
    pools that fill with water with season variation
  19. Prairie Potholes
    Shallow glacier lakes
  20. Ramsar Convention
    areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 meters
  21. 3 elements of wetlands
    • Suitable hydrology to create saturated conditions
    • Soils and soil processes characteristic of saturated conditions
    • Biota esp. higher vascular plants adapted to those conditions
  22. Wetlands: between terrestrial and aquatic systems
    Transitional System
  23. Wetlands are limited in;
    Nitrogen
  24. Wetlands can have a number of beneficial services to receiving waters and to biological diversity
    • Reduction of erosion
    • Trapping suspended sediments
    • Retaining and storing nutrients
    • Moderating stormflows and floods
    • Breeding areas and habitat for fish, birds and wildlife
    • Recharging groundwater
  25. Lentic
    standing water
  26. lotic
    flowing water
  27. Definition of lake
    Permanent standing water which maintains an open water surface of greater than 0.1 km2
  28. Precipitation/evaopration Balance
    P/E
  29. andromous fish
    salt and freshwater
  30. Thermocarce lakes
    melting permafrost
  31. alaochtonous
    energy produced elsewhere
  32. Autochtonous
    produces its own energy
  33. Epilimnion
    layer of uniform warm temperatures
  34. Metalimnion
    layer of rapidly mixing layers
  35. Hypolimnion
    cold uniform layers
  36. Zeu
    1% of light
  37. Dimitic
    mixes twice
  38. monomitic
    mixes once
  39. meronmitic
    mixes rarely
  40. Polymitic
    mixes often
  41. Seiche
    tilting of the layers within a lake due to surface winds
  42. phtosysthesis requires more than ____ saturation
    1%
  43. Z eu
    depth of Euphotic zone
  44. Z mix
    where the layers are mixing

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