335 12.1 Phonatory Physiology

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335 12.1 Phonatory Physiology
2012-04-02 19:01:14
Phonatory Physiology

phonatory physiology
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  1. vocal cord vibration
    • creates voice
    • vocal ligament is what is vibrating
  2. vocal fold tension
    • stretching o the vocal folds
    • more tense = higher pitch
  3. vocal fold mass
    • weight of the folds
    • heavier = lower pitch
  4. pitch
    • physiological correlate of frequency of vocal fold vibration
    • measured in Hz
  5. optimal pitch
    • most efficient frequency of vibration
    • least damaging, healthiest
  6. habitual pitch
    pitch used most by an individual
  7. pitch range
    difference between highest and lowest frequencies
  8. average frequency for men
    120 Hz
  9. average frequency for women
    220 Hz
  10. increased length of vocal folds means
    • decreased mass
    • increased tension
    • increased pitch
  11. myoelastic - aerodynamic theory 6
    • larynx is adducted during voice
    • positive subglottal air pressure forces the folds apart
    • intraglottal pressure drops due to air movement
    • supraglottal pressure forces the folds back together
    • tissue elesticity restoares vocal fold contact
    • cycle is repeated
  12. Bernoulli effect
    vocal folds vibrate due to air pressure and tissue elasticity
  13. vocal abuse
    behaviors that can cause damage
  14. vocal misuse
    using larynx in an incorrect way that can cause damage
  15. dysphonia
    disorders of voice
  16. vocal fold nodules 6
    • bilateral growths arising from vocal abuse
    • anterior middle 1/3 of folds
    • common in singers, teachers, cheerleaders
    • capital A formation
    • look like little bumps on the vocal folds
    • they start small but get bigger if vocal abuse is continued
  17. vocal polyps 4
    • typically unilateral
    • middle of vocal folds
    • glottal chink evident during phonation
    • tissue reaction on healthy fold
  18. polyps with a stem
  19. polyps with out a stem (broad based)
    sessile polyps
  20. contact ulcers 6
    • medial margins of vocal process
    • can be unilateral or bilateral
    • usually in loud talkers, driven ppl unders stress
    • speak using hard glottal attack
    • esophageal reflux may be a cause
    • irritates the posterior vocal folds near the esophagus
  21. cancer of larynx 6
    • leukoplakia is precancerous condition
    • whitish plaque buildup on vocal folds
    • can be found anywhere in the larynx
    • strip vocal fold of lesion
    • dysphonia
    • does not go away on its own
  22. vocal fold paralysis 6
    • can be unilateral or bilateral
    • lack of nerve signal
    • bilateral leads to aphonia (no voice)
    • unilateral leads to dysphonia, breathiness, low volume
    • surgical mistake often cause particularly thyroid or heart surgery
    • if unilaterl - told to use a hard glottal attack