Psych Test 3; Chapter 11
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Stages of Development
- Conception- 2 weeks
- called a zygote
- 2nd to 8th week
- Called an embryo
- 9th week to birth
- Myelination (the formation of fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron) occurs.
- Called a fetus.
tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet
describes the tendancy for motor skills to emergy in sequence from the center to the periphery.
the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months
- cause birth defects
- Fetal alcohol syndrome: distinct facial features
Infants can mimic facial expressions...
a few hours after birth.
Which sort of stimuli do infants react to?
Social, although they do react to visual stimuli
the ability to focus on what another person is focused on.
the ability to use another person's reactions as information about the world.
Who did the monkey studies?
Which mother did the monkeys prefer?
The comforting cloth mother.
Piaget's Stages (order)
- Concrete Operational
- Formal Operational
theories about or models of the way the world works.
- Birth- 2 yrs
- Object permancnce: the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible.
- 2-6 yrs
- Egocentrism and false belief test
False belief test
- child believes others know what they know (puppet test)
- passes at some point in preoperational stage
- 6-11 years
- Conservation: quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the appearance.
- 11 and older
- Abstract concepts
Who determined stages of moral development?
A moral stage in which the consequence dictates the morality of an action.
A moral stage social rules determine morality.
A moral stage in which core values and principles determine morality.
the emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregiver.
How is attachment style determined?
Mary Ainsworth's strange situation
Most common type of attachment
- 60% of infants
- distressed when carefiver leaves
- comforted by caregiver's return
- parents respond quickly and well to infant's discomfort
Second most common type of attachment
- not distressed when parents leave
- don't care when they come back
- parents are indifferent to child's needs
Third most common type of attachment
- distressed when parents leave
- mad when they come back
- Inconsistent caregiving
Least common type of attachment
- no consistent pattern
Day care does _________ quality of attachment
nothing to affect
- Def: the period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturing (11-14 yrs of age)
- increased importance of peer relationships
- development in sexuality
Girl's growth spurt
growth spurt around 10 years old, reach full height around 15.5 years old.
Boy's growth spurt.
growth spurt around 12 years old, reach full height around 17.5 years old.
very high rate in the US due to lack of sex ed
What percentage of women have had sex by 18?
varies over time
Happiness increases/decreases with age?
Increases with age
When are the two dips in marital satisfaction?
- baby in diapers
- child hits pueberty
Socio-emotional selectivity theory
younger adults are oriented toward potentially useful information while older adults focus on positive information.
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