Psych 341 Exam 3
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- Born in Illinois in 1902
- Raised in Fundamentalist Christian Home
- Studied at University of Wisconsin and Union Theological SeminaryPsychology degree from Columbia UniversityHeld several clinical and academic positions
- President of APA
Self Actualization (Rogers)
- a "subaspect" of the actualization process.
- unhealthy when a person is state of incongruence with the real self
- Everyone is "becoming" but few become fully self-actualized
Organismic Valuing Process
Inner sense within a person which guides him or her in the direction of growth and health
Example: the inner vague feeling that choosing a certain career, or a certain love partner, would be wrong for you, even if everyone else approves of that choice.
What makes up a Fully Functioning Person
- Has the following Characteristics: - Openness to experience
- - Creativity
- - Existential living
- - Pays attention to Organismic Valuing Process
- - Experiential Freedom
- - Self-actualizing
The Ideal Self (Rogers)
What a person feels he or she ought to be like
Person might pretend to be like ideal self instead of real self
The Real Self (Rogers)
The self that contains the actualizing tendency
What does it mean to be Incongruent?
- Person experiences the real self as threatening.
- Defense mechanisms are put in place to avoid the threat.
What is Unconditional Positive Regard?
Accepting a valuing a person without requiring particular behaviors as a prerequisite.
Rogers believes child musted be loved to become fully functioning.
What is then meant by Congruence?
Defined: a feeling of consistency between the real self and the ideal self
Rogers especially thinks therapist should be selectively transparent to facilitate healing/growth.
What did Rogers say about the Development of Creativity?
- Creativity requires 3 psychological Qualities
- - Openness to Experience - An Internal Locus of Evaluation
- - Ability to Toy with Elements and Concepts
Client Centered Therapy
Therapy based on the belief that the person seeking help is the best judge of the direction that will lead to growth.
What is Prizing?
Characteristic of a good therapist, which involves positively valuing the client; also called unconditional positive regard
The ability of the therapist to understand the subjective experience of the client.
What are Encounter Groups?
- Growth-enhancing technique in which a group of people openly and honestly express their feelings and opinions.
- Facilitator leads the discussion.
What does Rogers mean when he says Transparent?
Therapist is open and willing to share past experience but only if it will help the client to overcome their problem.
- Maslow's term for his theory which emphasizes its opposition to psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
- Instead focuses on experiential knowledge and existentialism.
Maslow's alternative to the traditional scientific method, emphasizing values and subjectivity (instead of objectivity)
- Lower order needs that if not met will not allow a person to continue developing through the Hierarchy of Needs to self-actualization
- Deficiency needs (oriented properly) - Esteem Needs
- - Love and Belonging Needs
- - Safety Needs
- - Physiological Needs
Higher order need felt when person has "achieved" self-actualization. It is the need to Actualize.
What does Maslow mean by Prepotent
Most powerful need at point in time; said of a need because it is unmet is most powerful at the moment
What is D-love?
Selfish love, Characteristic of a person who is not self-actualized
What is B-love?
Non-possessive love, characteristic of a self-actualized person
The development of a person's full potential
What is Maslow's approach to psychological research?
- He thought it should be problem centered (not method centered)
- Distrusted methods of mainstream Psychology
- Preferred experiential knowledge
- Suggested existentialism because of emphasis on experience and search for identity.
- Born in Germany
- Father was Authoritarian sea captain and strict Lutheran
- Studied Medicine at University of FreiburgUnsuccessful Marriage - suffered depression, fatigue and multiple affairs
- Published Male/Female relationships and marriage
- Father's death affected her
- Established the Berlin Psycoanalytic institute in 1920
- Psychoanalytic Relational Theory
Conflict of a child
When child experiences neurotic conflict with parent they must decide whether to move toward, move against, or move away
Attempting to solve neurotic conflict by seeking master; moving against people (perfection)
Attempting to solve neurotic conflict by seeking freedom; moving away from people (detaching)
Attempting to solve neurotic conflict by seeking love; moving toward people.
Detached personality type
- Live by the motto, "If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me"
- Strive to be self-sufficient
- Tend to be very creative
Ideal Self (Horney)
- An image of what a person wishes to be.
- Tendency to move away from real self toward what they want to be.
Real Self (Horney)
- Part of the self that retains all potential for Growth.
- Vital, unique center of the self.
- Secondary adjustment technique in which a person explains behaviors in socially acceptable ways.
- "Self-Deception by reasoning"
Eclipsing the Conflict
- Eclipsing part of the conflict to raise it's opposite to predominance
- Emphasizing hostility over dependece or vice versa.
Neurotic recognizes that people are source of anxiety and seeks self-sufficiency.
- Reminiscent of Freud's "Projection"
- Defense mechanism in which conflicts are projected outside.
Blocking out parts of the self that are inconsistent with the idealized self.
Secondary defense mechanism in which a person arbitrarily or dogmatically declares their opinion as right.
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