BSC Test 3

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tdavis2
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145381
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BSC Test 3
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2012-04-04 01:21:54
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TONYA
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BSC test
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  1. Communication by neurons is based on changes in the......
    Permeability to ions.
  2. What two types of membrane potentials are major functional significance?
    Graded Potentials and action potentials.
  3. Within the PNS?
    major divisions are the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic & sympathetic)
  4. Dendrites??
    Receive information, normally neurotransmitters, the undergo graded potentials.
  5. Axons??
    Undergo Action potentials to deliver information
  6. Myelinated neurons conduct action potentials______.
    most rapidly.
  7. PNS = Afferent Neurons?
    their actibity "affect" what will happen next (into the CNS)


    no dendrites
  8. PNS = Efferent Neurons??
    "effecting" change movement, secretion, ect., projecting out of the CNS
  9. CNS = Interneurons??
    function as integrators & signal changers

    99% of all neurons
  10. Communication?
    A single neruron postsynaptic to one cell can bepresynaptic to another cell.
  11. The size of a graded potential is proportionate to the_________.
    intensity of the stimulus.


    *Graded potential decay as they move over distance.
  12. Graded potentials can be;
    Excitatory (action potential is more likely)

    or


    Inhibitory (action potential is less likely)
  13. Depolarization for action potential is???
    Sodium driven.
  14. Opening Na- (sodium) channels for __________.
    depolarization.
  15. Opening K+ (potassium) channels for____
    repolarization.
  16. The rapid openning of voltage-gated Na+ channels explains the __________ phase at the begining of the action potential.
    rapid-depolarization
  17. The slower openning of voltage-gated K+ channels explains the ___________ and sfter hyperpolarization phases that complete the action potential.
    repolarization
  18. The propagation of the action potential from the dendritic to the axon-terminal end is typically_______ because the absolute refractory period follows alongin the "wake" of the moving action potential.
    one-way
  19. PNS = Somatic Division...
    -single neuron

    -Innervates skeletal muscle

    -only muscle excitation

    -voluntary


    CNS--->effector organ
  20. PNS= Autonomic Division
    -two-neuron chain

    -Innervates smooth & cardic muscle, glands & GI neurons

    - can be either excitatory or inhibitory

    CNS-> preganglionoc fiber-> ganglion->postganglionoc fiber
  21. Most structure is _______ smooth muscle.
    Heart
  22. The _____ is the point of communication between twoo nerons that operate sequentially.
    synapse
  23. The _________ ________ is the space between to nerve cells.
    synaptic cleft
  24. ______________ __________: Action potentials jump from pne node to the next as they propagate along a myelinated axon.
    Saltatorial Conduction
  25. Myelinated fiber only depolorize at active ____ __ ____site of action potential.
    node of Ranvier
  26. Non-myelinated fibers depolorize ________.
    every inch.
  27. Characteristics Graded Potentail
    • -amplitude varies
    • -can be summed
    • - no threshold
    • -no refractory period
    • -can be depolarization or hyperpolarization
    • -initiated by environmental stimulus, neurontransmitter, or spontaneously
    • -ligand gated channels
  28. Characteristics of Action Potential
    • - All-or-none, amplitude is independent
    • - cannot be summed
    • -has a threshold
    • -has a refractory period
    • -only depolarization
    • -initiated by action potential
    • -voltage-gated channels
  29. Path of action potential from presynaptic cell to postsynaptic cell. 5 steps
    • 1. action potential reaches termial
    • 2. Voltage-gated Ca channels open
    • 3. Ca enters axon termial
    • 4. Neurotransmitter release & diffusion (synaptic cleft)
    • 5. Neurotransmitter binds to postsynaptic receptors
  30. Two overlapping graded depolarization demonstrates ______ ______.
    temporal summation
  31. Distinct actions of stimulating neurons A & B demonstrate_____ ______.
    Spatial summation
  32. All action potential are the ____. The more action potential the more____.
    same

    neurotransmitters released
  33. The greater density of nerve endings in a receptive field has _______.
    more sensitivate = greater number of action potential
  34. Lateral inhibition....
    "sharpens contrast" in the pattern of action potential received by the CNS


    allows the CNS to more accurately locate the cource of stimulation
  35. Different sensory units ____________ of adaptation to stimuli.
    • vary in their speed
    • (rapidly and slowly adapting)
  36. Sensory association in the Auditory Cortex?
    Hearing
  37. Sensory association in the Parietal Lobe?
    Spatial sense
  38. Sensory association in the Occipotal Lobe?
    Vision
  39. Sensory association in the Temporal Lobe?
    pain, bodily sensation
  40. All ascending pathwa, EXCEPT for those involved in______ synapse in the ________ on their way to the cortex.
    Smell, thalamus
  41. Meissner's Corpuscle (recepte cell)
    light touch
  42. Merkle's Corpuscle (recepte cell)
    touch
  43. Free Nerve endings (recepte cell)
    pain
  44. Pacinian Corpuscle (recepte cell)
    vibration and deep pressure
  45. Ruffini Corpuscle (recepte cell)
    Warmth
  46. Somatosensory Cortex give the sensation of?
    touch
  47. Somatosensory areas in the cortex of the brain are ______ organized in relation to the source of information, with larger areas dedicated to parts of the body that process __________.
    anatomically, fine dicrimination

    ex hands receptor fields are more dense
  48. Visual transductio occurs on the ____ and is based in the images focused there by the _____ & _____.
    retina, corna, lens
  49. Normal sight the image is focused ______ on the retina.


    Nearsighted the image is focused ________ the retina.


    Farsighted the image is focused _____ the retina.
    normal = onto


    nearsighted = infront


    farsighted = behind
  50. Lost of rods =


    Lost of cones =
    rods- night blindness


    cones- color blindness
  51. Light penetration past the _____ prior to transduction by the rods and cones.
    ganglion
  52. Visual fields "NOT" crossed over
    L visual is on the right side of the eye then processed by right side of the brain
  53. The pinna & external auditory canal focus sound waves on the _______, which rocks the _____, ______ & _____ causing ripples in the cochlear fluid and auditory transduction.
    tympanic membrane


    malleus, incus, & stapes
  54. Ripples of the cochlear fluid are transmitted to movement of the?
    basliar membrane
  55. Two major function of the ear?
    hearing & balance
  56. ___________ system detects change in the motion and position of the head by the use of 3 fluid filled tubes near each ear.
    Vestibular


    45* angels, lined w/ hairs, which depolarizes and causes a action potential
  57. _______ provides diagnostic information about the location of abnormal activity of the brain.
    EEG (electroencephalograph)
  58. Limbic system
    "primative brain"


    located on top of the brain steam


    reset of the brain develops aroun the limbic system

    Fuctions- emotion, learning, appetite, sex, endrocrine
  59. Comprehension of speech is located in which part of the brain?
    Wernicke's area
  60. Production of speech is produced in which area of the brain?
    Broca's area
  61. Motor communication command of the brain.....
    • highest level = intent plan )cerebral cortex)
    • middle level = bounces around to for a list of commands
    • local level = brain to muscle, consitly check for correct actions
  62. Brainsteam is the main control for?
    involuntary GI & heart rate
  63. Cerebellum is the main control for?
    program storage
  64. Sensorimotor certex is the main control for?
    skelatal muscle
  65. What provides information about muscle position and stretch?
    muscle spindles & golgi tendon (saftey step)
  66. The pain-wi
  67. The pain-withdrawal reflex is?
    Bilateral spinal cord level
  68. Efferent motor commands are ________.
    contralateral "crossed"
  69. The brainsteam influences __________ motoe activity.
    ipsilateral "same side"
  70. The sarcomere is composed of:
    thick filaments, anchored in place by titin fibers


    thin filaments, anchored in place by Z-lines
  71. Factors that determining muscuel tension?
    • tesion by each fiber
    • action potential, length, diameter, fatigue


    • number of fibers (whole muscle)
    • # of fiber per unit, # of active motor units
  72. The thick filament called myosin is actually a___________
    polymer of myosin molecules
  73. The _____ ______ between excitation and development of tension in a skeletal muscle, time which Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum is released to move tropomyosin
    latent period
  74. Ca is stored in the?
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  75. Slow-oxidative skeletal muscle........
    Type I

    repetitive stimulation w/out becoming fatigues

    ex. body posture
  76. Fast-oxidative skeletal muscle......
    Type II A

    quickly and to repetitive stimulation w/out becoming fatigues

    ex. walking
  77. Fast-glycolytic skeletal muscle is used or??
    Type II B

    quick burst of strong activation

    ex. jumping
  78. A single ____ consists of a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it contols.
    motor unit



    * you want a mixture of both single & two motor units
  79. Partial dissipation of elastic tension between subsequent stimuli is ?
    Unfused tetanus
  80. No time for dissipation of elastic tension between rapidly recurring stimuliis?
    Fused tetanus
  81. The exoxytosis of acetylcholine from the axon termial occurs when the ________ merge into the membrane covering the termial
    acstylcholine vesicles
  82. ______________lots of actin-myosin overlap and plenty of room to slide.
    optimal-length sarcomere
  83. ________ actinfilaments lack room to slide, so little tension can be developed.
    Short sarcomere
  84. _________ actin and myosin do notoverlap much, so little tension can be developed.
    Long sarcomere
  85. creatine phosphate -----> creatine & phosphate =
    ADP----> ATP
  86. Ca binding to troponin removes blocking action of______
    tropomyosin
  87. Passage of an action potential along the transverse tubule opens nearby voltage gated channels _____________
    ryanodine receptor
  88. Functions of ATP in skeletal muscle contraction.....
    hydrolysis of ATP by myosin

    binding of new ATP allowing the bridges to repeat

    Ca-ATPase, active transport of Ca ions into reticulum
  89. Charateristics of the three TYPES of skeletal muscle fibers....
    • I II A IIB
    • source ATP Oxidative phosphorylation "" Glycolytic
    • Mitochondria Many Many Few
    • Rate if fatigue slow intermediate fast
    • Contraction slow fast fast
    • Dianeter small intermediate large
  90. Contraction occurs when Ca ions bind to ________, this pulls ___________ awayfrom the cross-bridge binding site.
    troponin


    tropomyosin
  91. Contraction is...
    myosin binds to action, and slides it, pulling the z-line closer, and reduceing the width of the I-band


    thin over thick
  92. The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the?
    tendon reflex
  93. The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central nervous system is?
    afferent.
  94. The cell membrane of skeletal muscle is called the
    sarcolemma
  95. At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its ion exchange pump transports
    3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.
  96. During saltatory conduction,
    action potentials occur at successive nodes along the length of the stimulated axon.
  97. When calcium ion binds to troponin,
    tropomyosin moves out of the groove between the actin molecules
  98. Thin filaments at either end of the sarcomere are attached to the
    Z line.
  99. Fast fibers
    produce powerful contractions.
  100. The most important factor in decreasing the intracellular concentration of calcium ion aftercontraction is
    active transport of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  101. ________ are the most numerous type of neuron.
    Interneurons
  102. Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the ________ nervous system.
    somatic
  103. When a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared,what occurs?
    temporal summation
  104. The functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the
    sarcomere.
  105. EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when
    sodium channels are opened.
  106. At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by
    tropomyosin molecules.
  107. The area of the sarcomere that contains only thin filaments is the
    I band.
  108. The type of contraction in which the muscle fibers produce increased tension but do not shorten iscalled
    isometric.
  109. The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by
    oligodendrocytes.
  110. Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in
    depolarization.
  111. The series of membranous channels that surround each myofibril is the
    sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  112. Each thin filament consists of
    a pair of protein strands wound together.
  113. Action potentials are conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by
    transverse tubules.
  114. The type of contraction represented by a single stimulus/contraction/relaxation sequence is a(n)
    twitch.
  115. The increase in muscle tension that is produced by increasing the number of active motor units iscalled
    recruitment.
  116. In an isotonic contraction
    tension rises and the skeletal muscle length changes.
  117. Graded potentials
    may involve either depolarization or hyperpolarization.

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