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What age range is considered adult?
What is maturity?
- ability to accept responsibility of
- one's actions,
- delay gratification
- make priorities
What Erikson task do people of 18-25 years work on?
Intimacy vs. Isolation
What Erikson task do people of 25-65 work on
- Generativity vs. Stagnation
At what age have men completed physical growth?
about age 21
At about what age have women completed physical growth
At what age do signs of age start?
At what stage are physical abilities at their peak efficiency?
what is the developmental task of young adulthood
- establish oneself as fully functional and capable of living independently
- coosing career/vocation
- establish long-term goals
- committing oneself to personal relationships
What type of choices do young adults make
choose partners, careers, finish education, marry, start families
what does middle adulthood see
growth and maturity of one's family and profession
What do people rely on as the encounter each life change
previously learned behaviors to help them cope
What happens if problem solving is effectively learned and established early in life?
then coping is usually effective as an adult
and will pose fewer crisis
What does stress used positively do to young adults
motivates them to achieve goals some of which are long term
What does stress used negatively/ignored do to young adults
can lead to many problems
how do emotions vary?
from stress in work and relationships
what does the emotional development of young adults center on?
learning to function w/in a stressful environment
What do young adults try to do about the many feelings they experience during this stage?
attempt to find new ways of coping with them
have occasional emotional outbursts
What should be included in assessments of the emotional status of all adults
- the client's perception of how their emotions affect their ability to develop satisfactory relationshipts
- or achieve professional goals
signs of stress, anxiety and depression
about how many adults in US experience major depression at some point?
how many of the adults that experience major depression recieve treatment?
less than 1/3
What does emotional development in later adulthood deal with
struggle of seeing oneself age
how do people in later adulthood who have successfuly coped with life's problems deal with seeing one's self age?
gracefully accept and adapt to the fact they are growing old
What motivates many in middle adulthood make the best of the benefits of middle age?
the anxiety generated by the prospect of a limited time on earth
What can cause anxiety in many adults?
fear of poor health, death and loss of financial security
what can anxiety in adults cause?
strss-related illness and behavioral problems
What can cause anger during adulthood?
- interactions are not as expected
- failed achievements or failed relationships with:
What do causes many adults to feel guilt?
- failure to meet personal gaols
- decisions made in general in life
- over parents & children
What does Intellectual development in young adults focus on
their ability to solve intellectual and abstract problems
what must young adults do to become successful in education or emploment?
process large amounts of info
learn many new skills
What happens as young adults effectively cope with their situations?
What is flexibility?
ability to adapt to change
how do adults continue to grow intellectually
by using their abilities to think
what is the “Use it or lose it” theory?
applies to physical as well as intellectual growth
If you use it, you will continue to grow and maintain what you already have to some degree!
if not you experience a decline as you age
What does social development in young adults focus on?
interactions and relationships with others
What occurse if peoples sense of personal id is strong & well established?
individuals learn to form close personal relationships & become willing to make lasting committments
When are lifelong habits usually formed?
What helps establish a young adult's interactional style ?
patterns of commuinicating and interacting with others
what do interactional style influence?
- choice of goals
what is an important task of young adults
how does sense of personal ID influence intimacy
those w/ strong personal ID can merge selves in long-term relationships
those w/ poor personal ID may seek serial relationships to fill unmet needs
What does the responsibilities of parenhood force many to do?
shift energies from self to caring for others
what can demands of parenting create
- feelings of inadequacy
- sense of isolation & helplessness
women working and Parenting are especially vulnerable
what often happen as kids become more independent
parents expand focus from immediate fam/work to involvement in commuinty activities
what is a social task for adults as kids get older
change from parent back to role of partner
what can middle-age couple do as kids move out?
redefine their marriage relationship
reexplore the communication, Commitment & compermise aspects of relationship
What are successful marriges based on?
a solid foundation
What do successful couples do?
each partner recognizes individuality of other& their needs achieve personal growth
what can couples who have effective commuications do
freely share their attitudes, opinons & emotions
reaffirm their commitment to each other
what do couples who are unable to commuincate effectively do?
frequently face possibility of divorce/separation
what does compromise involve?
- a willingness to negotiate
- enter into interactions where neither wins
how are conflicts resolved in compromise?
by defining and solving the problem
focus kept on issue
what do couples who find their relationship is respected and cherished do?
- communicate openly
- listen carefully
- try to understand their partner's point of view
what does development w/in spiritual dimension focus on
defining one's value system and belief system
what is the spiritual task of adults concerned with?
finding meaning in life.
when does reexamination of values occure?
- as people become established w/in the community
- begin to raise families
what is reexamined in light of one'sown mortality?
- religious beliefs
- spiritual beliefs
what is mortality?
eventually having to die
what lifestage typically have drastic lifestyle changes?
what kind of activities tend to become more important in adulthood?
what does volunteering do for adults?
- enriches their lives
- provides many opportunities for socialization
what do adults who don't /can't find meaning in their lives become?
- more at risk of serious mental health problems
what do adults become willing to devote their energies to?
- guide the next generation
- making the world a better place
what do adults who have established peronal ID developed?
- ability to have develope problem solving
- set priorites
- ID reasonable expectatioins for selves
- form bonds w/ other people
- able to give of selves both intimately and socially
- has balance b/w give and take
what do successful adults develop?
inner strength to carry them through daily living
what are the 3 C's?
- Commitment- to s.o. and career, children
- Communication- with s.o., children and co-workers
- Compromise- (negotiating when no one either wins or looses) with s.o., children and co-workers
when can physical & psychological stress-related problems develop in adults
people become too anxious
how are common difficulties that challenge adults divided into?
- internal types
- external types
for adults what is internal
one's personal outlook
what is considered external?
what kind of problems are internal?
what are the decisions that must adults cope with about?
what do adults developes when they feel they've made the right choice?
inner strength to weather future storms
what happens when adults allow anxiety, anger etc to be the focus
effective adaptatioin does not occur as easily
what should people who provide health care to adults be aware of?
the client's problems & coping skills
what is a good form of preventive mental health care?
when do problems with establishing a strong personal identification?
what type of kids find it more difficult to feel good about themselves as adults?
- those that weren't
What does overcoming a childhood filled w/ negative examples require?
- looking at one's behaviors
- learn new methods of handling complex situations
what do many adults need to overcome difficulties of their past?
- support and
- examples of effectively functioning people
how can care providers assist adult pts internal problems?
- offering emotional support & encouragement
- act as valued resources- directing pt to community
- resources like support groups
how do you lessen the possiblity of future mental health problems in young adults?
helping them develop a positive personal ID
what are some common problems in adulthood
- ¡Adjustment disorders
- ¡Anxiety disorders
- ¡Sexual disorders
- ¡Mood disorders
- ¡Personality disorders
- ¡Health disorders
- ¡Lack of income, joblessness, poverty
- And there is more
What happens if difficulties coping due to intellectual reasons- (limited ability to effectivly solve problems)?
personality difficulties are more common
What type of adults have to cope fewer stress-related effects to emotional problems?
those that can put things into perspective
How do mentally healthy adults recat to their emotions
accept them w/o acting inappropriately on them
what does drug / alcohol abuse usually result from
- person's need to deal with emotional problems
- (inadequacy, anxiety,depression)
what group of adults is more prone to anger-control issues?
those who were exposed to aggressive acts as kids
What is adulthood a time for?
commitment to others
Why do young adults often seek relation ships?
- to fill apersonal void
- escape unhappy situation
what type of relationships do young adults often search for?
ones that will fulfill their needs and encourage their personal growth
What is marriage in US society?
a legal state that bonds two people as a family unit
What often happens after couples have kids?
responsibilities of life focus on nurturing & providing for offspring
What decision is made when kids mature and leave home?
to continue or end the relationship
what are homosexual families at a greater risk for?
mental health problems
stigma and discrimination that still exists
who is most vulnerable to cycle of violance that comes with abusive relationships?
What are most women not screend for , despite more frequent health care visits?
inimate partner violence
What do members of the "sandwich generation" have to face?
dual responsibilities of caring for children and parents at the same time
What does caring for kids & parents do to many adults
add many new stresses to thefamily
make them have to balance carreer, kids, parents
what can happen to small problems with social relationships
they can ballon into serious mental health problems
what kind of problems can extend to work and social env?
learning what skills can make a big differance in helping people become functional adults
learing effective communication & interpersonal skills
how can caregivers help prevent mental illness from interpersonal issues?
- IDing clients with interpersonal problems
- offering support, edu, resources
What are many unplanned pregnancies?
What choices relating to pregnancy do many unmarried adults face?
- terminating pregnancy
- single parenting
- marrying for the sake of the kid
what do most parents base their child-rearing practices off of?
how they were treated as kids
What factors affect parenting practices, kids,& family?
- financial status
- family relationships
- health practices
- spiritual beliefs
- parenting style
- socialization w/ others
- type of discipline
What percent of US housholds are head by single women?
more than 8%
w/o support or intervention what do single parent families have a high potential for devloping?
several mental health issues
what are positive aspects of single parenthood?
- no conflict of differant child-rearing outlooks
- are free from adult conflicts
What often happens w/ blended families & adoptive families
members instantly become relatives "w/o the shared experience of developing their parent-child relationship over time"
what must blended/adoptive families do?
- establish new:
- family boundaries
What often hapens to childless adults by middle adulthood?
need to share & leave one's mark increases
What is one of the greatest stressers for all adults?
what type of vocation must many young adults choose
- one that offers
- opportunity to provide necessities of life
what kind of problem is unemployment?
What is often associated w/ child neglect, maltreatment & abuse?
stressful family env w/ unemployed head of house
How can care providers help unemployed families
assist families find support & retraing services
How can environment affect adults?
encourage or limit further development
What are some of the major environmental problems affecting adults
- lack of edu
- substance abuse
- lack of social support
why should health care providers be aware of env problems of adults?
they have a strong impact on their mental health
What is education closely associated with?
one's economic status
What does a lack of education do?
- limits abilities
- fosters disabilies
What is the result of un/underemployment?
What advantages do more educated/trained adults have over those less so?
- more financial & healthcare resources
- better able to cope w/ everyday problems
- more savings & financial reserves
How should you encourage clients to seek further edu/training?
referring them to various commuinty agencies that offer help/training
What does poverty cause?
- unstable housing
- poor educational opportunites
- work problems
- increased risk for becoming a victim