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Hyperpolarization cyclic nucleotide
pacemaker setting rhythem that's much slower
Myocardial action potential
Once another myocardial cell has been stimulated by actional potential originated in the SA, it produces it's own action potential
If the refractory period weren't as long (due to the Ca+ plateau), the myocardial cell can be stimulated a second time before they completed their first contraction
There would have been zero output otherwise
So potential shorter refractory period would cause ventricular fibrillation
And potential faster action potential (like 1,2 msec), summation would occur
4 types of tissues
- epithelial tissues
- connective tissues
- nervous tissues
- muscle tissues
Why is lost of control of the atria not as bad as lost of control of the ventricles?
Because 70% of the blood move without the atrium even contracting
- Tissue death caused by local lack of oxygen due to obstruction
- -Cause slower waves, because action potentials can't travel through
Increase heart rate and blood pressure will cause enlargement of which cardial department?
- When the oxygen supply is deficient because of inadequent blood flow
- Associated with increased concentration of blood lactic acid by anaerobic metabolism
a cardiac rate slower than 60 beat/minute
A cardiac rate faster than 100 beats/ minute
Mean Arterial Pressure: It is defined as the average arterial pressure during a singlecardiac cycle.
Systolic/Diastolic peak: 120/80
On the right side of the heart 25/8 (systolic/diastolic)
- Cardiac output
- -The amount pushed out by the left ventricle into aorta and the circulation
Represents the depolarization of the ventricles, happens at the beginning of systole;
As the pressure in ventricle builds up, the AV valves shut
- T wave represents repoloarization of the ventricles, happens at the beginning of diastole;
- As the ventricle relaxes, its pressure decreases, the semilunar valve shuts to prevent backflow