BIOL141-test3 --c.19.txt

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dmk5154
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145478
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BIOL141-test3 --c.19.txt
Updated:
2012-04-03 13:11:02
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psu biol141
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BIOL141 Test 3 --- c.19 regulation of metabolism
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  1. O2 consumed by a relaxed, awake person 12-14 hours after eating is the _____________, affected by thyroid activity
    basal metabolic rate
  2. to construct molecules from smaller ones is called ___________
    anabolism
  3. Vitamins ADEK are fat ________________
    soluble
  4. vitamins B & C are _________________
    water soluble
  5. vitamin __ : needed for blood clots
    K
  6. vitamin ___: needed for calcium metabolism
    D
  7. Vitamin ___: involved in embryonic development, T cell activity, & epitehlial function
    A
  8. vitamin ____: encourages inflammatory response & antioxidant
    E
  9. Molecules with unpaired electrons ---Very reactive in the body � either oxidizing (removing electrons) or reducing (adding electrons) from other molecules
    free radicals
  10. mechanisms that defend a set amount of adipose tissue: ______________
    adipostat
  11. energy is stored in _______ fat as triglycerides
    white
  12. _______ regulates the reproductive function of women in the hypothalamus; low body fat = no menstruation
    leptin
  13. ____ is secreted by the stomach when its empty to stimulate hunger
    ghrelin
  14. insulin reduces hunger directly? True/false?
    false; indirectly
  15. _____ fat is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis
    brown
  16. glucagon ____ conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
    promotes
  17. in the liver, fatty acids are converted to _________ bodies to be used as energy sources
    ketone
  18. Type ___ diabetes is an autoimmune disease
    I
  19. _______ makes skeletal muscles more sensitive to insulin
    exercise
  20. ___DL lipids are "good" lipids
    HDL
  21. In diabetes, the increased glucose in the blood commonly leads to ________ and ________
    blindness and gangrene
  22. __________ is released as a part of GAS in response to stress
    cortisol
  23. _______ Acts on most cells in the body to increase rates of cellular respiration by decreasing intracellular ATP levels
    thyroxine
  24. growth hormone is secreted by the ____________ pituitary
    anterior
  25. IGF-1 mediates __________ growth
    bone
  26. Excessive release of growth hormone in childhood = _______
    gigantism
  27. Once the cartilage is converted to bone in the ____________, no more height can be achieved (growth)
    epiphyseal plates
  28. Excess release of growth hormone in adults = ___________, which includes growth of soft tissues, elongation of the jaw, and deformities of the face, hands, and feet
    acromegaly
  29. Inadequate production of growth hormone can produce several forms of ______________
    dwarfism
  30. Magnesium is needed to create _____, which a deficiency would lead to hypocalcemia
    PTH
  31. _______________ break down bone(resorb), while ___________ build bone up(deposition)
    osteoclasts ; osteoblasts
  32. __________ Inhibits resorption of bone by inhibiting osteoclast activity
    calcitonin
  33. Men are less prone to __________ because they make testosterone their whole lives while women stop making estrogen at menopause
    osteoporosis
  34. the BMR (basal metabolic rate) is affected by the ______ gland
    thyroid
  35. there are 9 essential amino acids, and __ essential fatty acids (essential = cannot be made within the body)
    2
  36. RDA in regard to food stands for
    recommended dietary allowances
  37. UV rays, pollution, poor nutrition, & stress are causes of increased _________
    free radicals
  38. apoptosis, degeneration (aging), cancer, inflammatory, neurological, & cardio diseases can result from _____ stress
    oxidative
  39. antioxidants ___ & ____ pick up unpaired electrons
    vitamins C & E
  40. NH2 (nitrogenous) waste is a result of protein metabolism. urea is _________, while ammonia is _________
    non-toxic, toxic
  41. damage to the VMHypothalamus (a hunger stimulation center), would result in __________ hunger
    decreased
  42. GLUT-4 is responsible for ________ transfer into skeletal muscles
    insulin
  43. increased blood glucose levels would be correlated with (increased or decreased?) insulin levels
    increased
  44. ketoacidosis is linked with which type of diabetes?
    Type II
  45. high levels of blood glucose can _________ blood vessels
    damage
  46. calcitonin __________ osteoclasts
    inhibits

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