Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminology
2012-04-18 22:04:17

Terms with meanings
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  1. superior
    above; toward the cranium (head)
  2. inferior
    below, toward the soles of the feet
  3. Anterior (ventral)
    toward the front of the body
  4. posterior (dorsal)
    near the back of the body
  5. medial
    towards the middle of the body
  6. lateral
    pertaining to the side, away from the middle of the body
  7. proximal
    near the point of attachment to the trunk
  8. distal
    farther from the point of attachment to the trunk
  9. supine
    lying on back, face up
  10. prone
    lying on stomach, face down
  11. frontal plane
    separates the body into front and back positions (anterior and posterior portions)
  12. sagittal plane
    divides the body into left and right sides
  13. transverse plane
    separates the body into upper and lower portions
  14. epidermis
    outer layer of skin
  15. dermis (corium)
    inner (2nd) layer of skin
  16. subcutaneous
    layer beneath the skin
  17. adipose
    fatty tissue
  18. erythema (tous)
  19. pruritic
  20. Edema
    excessive fluid in intracellular tissue; swelling
  21. diaphoresis
    sweating/ perspiration
  22. ulcer
    open sore or lesion of the skin
  23. decubitus ulcer
    bed sore
  24. biospy
    surgical removal of a small piece of skin or tissue for the purposes of diagnoses
  25. debridement
    removal of damaged skin (or dead tissue)
  26. ossification
    bone formation
  27. osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  28. abduction
    move away from midline of the body
  29. adduction
    move towards midline of the body
  30. circumduction
    move in circular direction
  31. dorsiflexion
    pointing toes downward
  32. eversion
    turning outward
  33. inversion
    turning inward
  34. flexion
  35. extension
    straight position
  36. pronation
    turn hand/ foot downward or backward
  37. supination
    turn/ foot upward
  38. rotation
    move around a central axis
  39. orthepedic
    medical specialty of muscular-skeletal system
  40. sprain
    tear in ligament
  41. fracture
    break in bone
  42. arthroscopy
    visual examination of joint
  43. reduction
    setting a fraction or broken bone
  44. traction
    using weights and pulleys to maintain alignment
  45. asthenia
  46. atonia
    flaccid; lack of muscle tone
  47. atrophy
    muscle wasting
  48. hemiparesis
    slight paralysis of one side of the body
  49. hemiplegia
    total paralysis of one side of the body
  50. myocele
    hernia of muscle
  51. myodynia
    pain in muscle
  52. myoma
    benign neoplasm (tumor) of muscle tissue
  53. myoparesis
    weakness / partial paralysis of muscle
  54. myositis
    inflammation of muscle
  55. paraplegia
    paralysis of both legs & lower part of the body
  56. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all 4 extremities
  57. tenalgia
    pain in tendon
  58. tendonitis
    inflammation of tendon
  59. aphasia
    loss of speech
  60. ataxia
    lack of muscular coordination
  61. delirium
    impaired consciousness
  62. dysphasia
    impaired speech
  63. hemiparesis
    slight paralysis of one side of the body
  64. hemiplegia
    total paralysis of one side of the body
  65. neuralgia
    pain in nerve
  66. paralysis
    loss of one or more muscle functions
  67. paraplegia
    paralysis of both legs & lower part of the body
  68. paresthesia
  69. psychomotor
    relationship between activity and muscular movement (not necessarily a disorder)
  70. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all 4 extremities
  71. amenorrhea
    absence of menstruation
  72. menorrhagia
  73. syncope
  74. endocrinology
    medical practice of the endocrine system
  75. endocrinologist
    medical practitioner who specializes in endocrinology
  76. adenectomy
    excision (removal) of a gland
  77. adenotomy
    incision (cutting) of a gland
  78. endocrine
    gland that delivers secretions into the body
  79. hormone
    chemical messenger that is secreted by an endocrine gland directly into the bloodstream
  80. hypoglycemic
    low levels of sugar in the blood
  81. hyperglycemic
    elevated levels of sugar in the blood
  82. systole
  83. diastole
  84. heart rate
    the number of contractions per minute
  85. arteries
    carry oxygenation blood away from the heart
  86. veins
    return blood to the heart
  87. capillaries
    blood vessels that connect the arterial and venous system
  88. vasodilation
    lumen is more open or widening of blood vessel
  89. vasoconstriction
    lumen is more narrowed or narrowing of blood vessel
  90. sphygmomanometer
    instrument to measure blood pressure
  91. erythrocytes
    red blood cells
  92. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  93. thrombocytes
  94. anemia
    abnormally low red blood cell count
  95. angina
    pain in chest
  96. arrhythmia
    abnormal rhythm; irregular heart beat
  97. arteriosclerosis
    hardening of arteries
  98. bradycardia
    abnormally slow heartbeat
  99. cardiac arrest
    cessation of heart activity
  100. cardiologist
    heart specialist
  101. cardiomegaly
    enlargement of the heart
  102. carditis
    inflammation of the heart
  103. hemoglobin
    protein that gives blood its red color
  104. hematologist
    blood specialist
  105. hematology
    medical specialty dealing with blood
  106. hemolysis
    change or destruction of red blood cells
  107. pulse
    rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery
  108. tachycardia
    abnormally rapid heartbeat
  109. thrombus
    blood clot attached to a vein or artery
  110. vascular
  111. vasoconstriction
    narrowing of the arteries
  112. vasodilation
    widening of the arteries
  113. immunity
    not being susceptible to a specific disease
  114. anaphylaxis
    life threatening reaction to a foreign substance
  115. antibody
    molecule generated in opposition to an antigen
  116. antigen
    substance that induces sensitivity or an immune response in the form of antibodies
  117. autoimmunity
    immune to oneself
  118. hemolysis
    change or destruction of red blood cells
  119. immunodeficiency
    impairment of the immune system
  120. inflammation
    redness and irritation caused by injury or abnormal stimulation; swelling
  121. pathogen
    substance that produces disease
  122. reaction
    action of an antibody on a specific antigen or an abnormal unwanted reaction
  123. allergist
    medical practitioner who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of allergies
  124. hematologist
    medical practitioner who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders
  125. immunologist
    medical practitioner who specializes in the immune system
  126. immunology
    medical specialty dealing with the immune system
  127. oncologist
    medical practitioner who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors
  128. apex
    upper tip of each lung
  129. apnea
    absence of breathing
  130. base
    bottom of each lung
  131. bradypnea
    abnormal slowness of breathing
  132. bronchoconstriction
    narrowed bronchi
  133. bronchodilation
    more opened bronchi
  134. diaphragm
    muscle of respiration located at the base of the thoracic cavity
  135. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing
  136. hemoptysis
    blood - tinged sputum
  137. mucus
    clear secretions produced in the respiratory tract
  138. orthopnea
    difficulty in breathing while lying flat, relieved by sitting up
  139. otolaryngologist
    physician that specializes in diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat disease
  140. otolaryngology
    medical study pertaining to ear, nose, and throat
  141. tachypnea
    rapid breathing
  142. colostomy
    surgical establishment of an opening into the colon
  143. constipation
    decrease in the frequency of bowel movements, difficulty in passing stool
  144. dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  145. emesis
  146. emetic
    drugs that stimulate or induce vomiting
  147. gastric
  148. gastrointestinal tract
    alimentary canal
  149. gastroenterologist
    specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive system disorder
  150. hyperemesis
    excessive vomiting
  151. jaundice
    yellowish cast to skin
  152. melena
    blood in stools
  153. peristalsis
    wave-like muscular contractions that move food along in the digestive tract
  154. proctologist
    specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of rectal and anal disorders
  155. stoma
    an artificial opening
  156. stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth
  157. urologist
    medical specialist who diagnosis and treats disorders of the urinary system
  158. urology
    medical specialty dealing with the urinary system
  159. nephrologists
    medical specialist who diagnoses and treats disorders of the kidneys
  160. nephrology
    medical specialty dealing with the kidneys
  161. anuria
    absence of urine formation
  162. catheter
    flexible tube that enables passage of fluid from or into a body cavity
  163. cystitis
    inflammation of bladder
  164. dysuria
    difficult or painful urination
  165. enuresis
  166. hematuria
    blood in urine
  167. incontinence
    inability to control urine
  168. nocturia
    excessive urination at night
  169. oliguria
    diminshed urine production
  170. polyuria
    excessive urine production
  171. retention
    the inability to empty the bladder
  172. urinalysis
    analysis of urine
  173. urinate
    passing of urine
  174. urinary tract infection
    microbial infection of any part of the urinary tract
  175. void
    to urinate
  176. obstetrician
    specialist who provides medical care to pregnant women and delivers babies
  177. gynecologist
    diagnose and treat disorders of the female reproductive system
  178. urologist
    diagnose and treat disorders of the urinary and male reproductive system
  179. neonatologists
    specialize in newborns
  180. pediatrician
    specialize in children
  181. amenorrhea
    absence of menstruation
  182. cystocele
    protrusion of the bladder into the anterior wall of the vagina
  183. dysmenorrhea
    painful menstruation
  184. lactation
    milk production in breast
  185. mammary gland
  186. mastitis
    inflammation of breasts
  187. menses
    end of one uterine cycle and the beginning of another
  188. pregnancy
    period of time when the fetus grows inside of the uterus
  189. prostatitis
    inflammation of the prostate
  190. rectocele
    protrusion of the rectum into the posterior wall of the vagina
  191. sexually transmitted disease
    diseases that are transmitted through sexual intercourse or sexual contact
  192. ophthalmology
    study of the eye
  193. ophthalmologist
    physician who diagnoses and treats disorders of the eye
  194. optometrist
    health care profession who examines and prescribes corrective lenses for the eye
  195. optician
    technician who fills and dispenses eye glass pescriptions
  196. otology
    study of the ear
  197. otologist
    physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear disorders
  198. otolaryngology
    study of the ear, nose, and throat
  199. otolaryngologist
    physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders
  200. audiologist
    health care professional who measures hearing and treats hearing impairments
  201. canthus
    angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet
  202. conjuctiva
    mucous membrane covering the anterior of the eyeball and inner eyelid
  203. ocular
    adjective referring to the eye
  204. lacrimation