Bio Final

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Bio Final
2012-04-03 19:41:20
Bio Final

Bio Final
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  1. What is neuromuscular junction?
    It is the synapse (area) in which motor neurons release a neurotransmitter.
  2. Where is the skeletal muscle located?
    Under the somatic nervous system, and is "voluntary" control.
  3. What are antagonist muscle groups?
    They are muscles that work in opposition to eachother.
  4. Where is the information that the sensory receptors collect sent to and what do they assist in?
    The central nervous system (CNS) and they assist in the coordination of muscle contraction.
  5. What does EMG stand for and what is its purpose?
    Electromyogram records muscle activity. It is an non-invasive way to assess muscle activity.
  6. What is the calculation for conduction velocity?
    Conduction Velocity (m/s) = total path length (m) / mean reflex time (s) - synaptic transmission time (s)
  7. EMG activity is related to ____
    Grip strength
  8. What do motor neurons consist of?
    They consist of branched axons, and they innervate skeletal muscles.
  9. What is involed in motor units?
    Motor unit involves motor neurons and muscles fibers that it innervates. Motor units undergo action potentials, and muscle fibers are stimulated and contract.
  10. Define motor unit recruitment?
    • Motor unit recruitment is the more motor units (neurons/muscle fibres) you activate, the greater the force of the muscle contraction. More recruitment= greater force.
    • Once all motor units have been recruited, no additional force can be generated.
  11. What is the plateau of muscle force?
    Maximal Level.
  12. What are neurotransmitters?
    They are released from the neuron plate, and transmit signals.
  13. Define osmosis.
    Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  14. Define osmoregulation
    Osmoregulation is the regulation of water and ion concentration in the body.
  15. Define osmoregulators.
    Osmoregulators are animals that maintain body solute concentrations different from the environment. Example: Humans
  16. Define osmoconformers
    Osmoconformers are animals that do not maintain body solute concentrations different from the environment.
  17. What is the predominant cation in extracellular fluid?
    Sodium (Na+)
  18. What is the calculation for the mass of a worm?
    Final/Initial x 100
  19. What is the equation of a worm...
    y=mx+b where y= the weight and x = the % solution.
  20. Define hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic.
    • Hypotonic= there is more water outside the cell, and more salt inside the cell. The water moves into the cell causing it to swell.
    • Hypertonic= there is more salt outside the cell, and more water inside the cell. The water moves out of the cell causing it to shrink.
    • Isotonic= the solute and solvent concentration is equal and stays the same.
  21. 0.1 mm = ____
    100 microm
  22. 1 dash= ___
    2.5 micro m
  23. The ____ the seawater, the lower the worm weighs because the concentration is hyperosmotic.
  24. When the worm gains weight, the solution was _____
  25. What is the surface area of lungs?
    50-100 m2
  26. The air sacs that move oxygen to the blood is called ____
  27. What are some factors that influence diffusion of gases between lungs and blood?
    • 1) the amount of respiratory surface area.
    • 2) diffusion distance
    • 3) concentration gradient
  28. A high concentration gradient is ensured by?
    • 1) movement of blood with low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels to the lungs
    • 2) pulmonary ventilation (breathing) which maintains high level of carbon dioxide and low levels of oxygen.
  29. The amount of air entering and leaving the lungs provide information on _____
  30. What is TV?
    Tidal Volume- is the amount of air that moves in and out of your lungs in one breathing cycle while at rest.
  31. What is IRV?
    Inspiratory Reserve Volume- is the additional air you inhale.
  32. What is ERV?
    Expiratory Reserve Volume- the additional air you exhale.
  33. What is RV?
    Residual Volume- the additional air in your lungs that you cannot exhale. (high carbon dioxide levels and low oxygen levels)
  34. What is VC?
    Vital Capacity- is the maximum volume of air that can be exchanged during a single breathing cycle. Your maximum TV.
  35. The respiratory center is?
    The medulla oblangata
  36. What do chemoreceptors detect?
    Carbon dioxide and oxygen levels.
  37. What do stretch receptors do?
    They provide information that modulates activity of respiratory center neurons.
  38. During exercise, what lung function increase/decrease?
    Your TV increase, IRV ERV decrease, and your VC should stay the same.
  39. What records air exchange?
  40. Calculate the Breathing Rate.
    Breathing Rate (breath/min) = 60 s/ mean breath period (s/breath)
  41. In the graph, why does it show that males have a higher oxygen consumption?
    They have more blood, tissues, muscle, bone and body mass. In that case they have more area for oxygen to cover for their bodies to function properly.
  42. Calculate something for respiratory system...
    MVC-PVC/ PVC x 100
  43. What does the cardiac cycle involve?
    The contraction of atria and ventricles.
  44. The heart contraction is triggered by _____ from myocardial cells
    Action potentials.
  45. What are excellent conductors?
    Bodily fluids.
  46. P-wave is?
    atrial depolarization
  47. QRS-wave is?
    Atrial repolarization/ ventricular depolarization.
  48. T-wave is?
    Ventricular repolarization.
  49. What is heart activity modified by?
    The Autonomic Nervous Systerm.
  50. What is an example of the excitation and inhibition that is rated by changes of contraction rate?
    Increase of heart rate during exercise.
  51. Define pressure reservoir.
    When blood exists the heart, it enters the arterial system to be distributed to the rest of the body.
  52. Define vasoconstriction.
    • When the blood vessels constrict, causing a decrease in pulse amplitude, a decrease in peripheral blood flow, and an increase in centralized blood pressure.
    • This releases the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (slows down heart rate)
    • Example: ice
  53. Define vasodilation.
    • When the blood vessels open, allowing oxygenated blood to replenish the body. Results in an increase in pulse amplitude, increase in peripheral blood flow, and a decrease in centralized blood pressure.
    • This releases the neurotransmitter, epinephrine (increases heart rate, fight or flight response)
    • Example: Exercise.
  54. What neurotransmitters release epinephrine, and acetylcholine?
    • Parasympathetic release acetylcholine.
    • Sympathetic release epinephrine.
  55. Define baroreceptor.
    • It ensures the central arterial blood pressure is maintained at an appropriate level and is not too high that it ruptures vessels.
    • Essentially, coordinates heart activity, arterial blood pressure, and peripheral blood flow.
  56. ______ takes place during diving and has potential to cause an increase in blood pressure of central arteries.
  57. Define diving bradycardia.
    When the heart rate is reduced to ensure that the blood pressure in the central artiers do not exceed safe levels.
  58. Calculate the heart rate.
    • Heart Rate (bpm) = 60 (s/min) / #
    • (p-p)
  59. Depolarization = ____
    Repolarization = ____
    • Blood out
    • Blood in
  60. Greater than 100
    Lower than 100
    • Gained water
    • Lost water
  61. Define metabolism.
    The sum of all chemical reactions that occur.
  62. What is catabolic?
    Destructive reactions which means that large organic molecules are broken into smaller molecules. Release energy (ATP)
  63. What is anabolic?
    Constructive reactions which means smaller molecules assemble into larger organic molecules. This requires the input of energy (ATP)
  64. What is metabolic rate?
    The amount of energy used up within a specific time.
  65. What is cellular respiration?
    When energy is produced by controlled oxidation of cellular fuels (carbs, protein)
  66. What influences metabolic rate?
    Body temperature, and body size.
  67. What is endothermic and ectothermic?
    • Endothermic is warm blooded
    • Ectothermic is cold blooded
  68. What is mass specific metabolic rate?
    • This includes the mass of the animal. The amount of energy an animal uses per kg of mass.
    • Smaller animals consume more oxygen than larger animals because
  69. What is metabolic rate?
    Metabolic rate is how much energy an animal uses during a period of time.