DNA FINAL

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Author:
jdeninno
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14554
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DNA FINAL
Updated:
2010-04-14 21:24:19
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cards used for studying 4 final
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  1. What is Alu element?

    
    • Alu is an example of a so-called "jumping gene" – a transposable DNA sequence that "reproduces" by copying itself and inserting into new chromosome
    • locations.

    There are over one million Alu sequences interspersed throughout the human genome.

    • Alu elements do not encode for protein products. There are variations in the Alu sequence and they can be grouped and family or
    • sub-family


    
  2. Size
    of Alu element
    • All Alus are
    • approximately 300 bp
  3. Why
    it called Alu element?
    • Because
    • it has a restriction site for AluI restriction enzyme
  4. Calculation
    of genotype frequency
    • Genotype frequency = (# students with genotype X) / (total # students) Size of two Alu element allele
    • can be same or different
  5. Prediction
    of parent’s Alu element allele
    • If you have one PCR
    • product then they are from your parent and same size repeat. If they are two
    • different size then your one is from your mom and other is from your dad.
  6. Steps
    you followed for Alu element analysis
    • 1. Buccal DNA
    • extraction

    • 2. PCR set up and
    • amplification

    3. DNA gel electrophoresis
  7. What
    STR stands for?
    short tandem repeat
  8. Core
    STR used in US for forensic analysis
    • In the United States, 13 core STR loci have been
    • decided upon to be the basis by which an individual genetic profile can be
    • generated
  9. Steps
    you followed for STR analysis
    1. Buccal DNA extraction

    2. PCR set-up and amplification

    • 3. Capillary gel electrophoresis and
    • DNA gel electrophoresis
  10. Calculation
    of allele frequency (%)
    • Allele frequency (%) = 2(# students homozygous for allele) + 2(# students
    • heterozygous for allele) / 2(# students)
  11. Homozygous/ Heterozygous STR allele
    • Whem both
    • chromosome have same size STR loci : Homogyzous

    • When the
    • chromosomes have two different size STR loci: Heterozygous
  12. Types
    of blood cells
    • Red blood cells or erythrocytes are relatively large
    • microscopic cells without nuclei. They are the most abundant cells in our
    • blood; produced in the bone marrow and contain a protein called hemoglobin that
    • carries oxygen to our cells.



    • White blood cells or
    • leucocytes are
    • relatively smaller in number. They are part of the immune system and destroy
    • infectious agents called pathogens. These cells have nuclei.



    • Platelate
    • or thrombocyte is
    • the clotting factors that are carried in the plasma; they clot together in a
    • process called coagulation to seal a wound and prevent a loss of blood. These
    • cells are without nuclei.
  13. Type
    of antigens present on RBC
    A and B
  14. Classification
    of blood groups/types depending on antigens
    Type A, B, O and AB
  15. Function
    of RBC
    • Red
    • blood cells or erythrocytes are relatively large microscopic cells without nuclei. They are
    • the most abundant cells in our blood; produced in the bone marrow and contain a
    • protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells.
  16. Group
    B: what type of antigen and antibody? A antigen and anti B antibody
    • Anti A
    • antigen
  17. Universal
    Donor and recipient groups
    • People
    • with TYPE O blood are called Universal Donors, because they can
    • give blood to any blood type.

    • People
    • with TYPE AB blood are called Universal Recipients, because they
    • can receive any blood type.

    Rh + à Can receive + or -

    Rh - à Can only receive -
  18. Rh
    factor/antigen
    • Another way to type
    • blood with Rh antigen present on RBC
  19. Meaning
    of A+ or A-
    • The A stands for the blood type
    • the + or -, refers to the presence or lack of RH

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