English Composition

Card Set Information

Author:
MarlieHopkins
ID:
145557
Filename:
English Composition
Updated:
2012-04-15 12:03:00
Tags:
English
Folders:

Description:
English
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user MarlieHopkins on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Contextualizing
    • A strategy that attempts to see the relationship between a constituent part, other parts, and the whole.
    • The texts is placed into context before it is read.
  2. A strategy that attempts to see the relationship between a constituent part, other parts, and the whole.
    Contextualizing
  3. Cramming
    A strategy that involves taking in as much information as possible in a limited amount of time.
  4. A strategy that involves taking in as much information as possible in a limited amount of time.
    Cramming
  5. Judging
    Considering the title of a work as a clue to its content or message.
  6. Considering the title of a work as a clue to its content or message.
    Judging.
  7. X-raying
    A scanning strategy that focuses on the structure of a text.
  8. A scanning strategy that focuses on the structure of a text.
    X-raying
  9. Many books come complete with their own X-ray results, often referred to as a _.
    table of contents
  10. Often referred to as a table of contents, many books come complete with their own _.
    x-ray results
  11. Annotating
    The process of writing notes as you read.
  12. The process of writing notes as you read.
    Annotating.
  13. Coming to terms
    The process of concluding which words the author is using as terms and what precisely those terms mean.
  14. The process of concluding which words the author is using as terms and what precisely those terms mean.
    Coming to terms
  15. Paraphrasing
    Translating within a single language, or putting a text into your own words.
  16. Translating within a single language.
    Paraphrasing
  17. Putting a text into your own words.
    Paraphrasing
  18. Summarize is to _.
    put into fewer words.
  19. To put into fewer words.
    Summarize
  20. Contradiction
    Either of two propositions related in such a way that it is impossible for both to be true or both to be false.
  21. Either of two propositions related in such a way that it is impossible for both to be true or both to be false.
    Contradiction
  22. Contradiction in terms
    Occurs when an author defines a term in one way and uses it in another (usually opposite) way.
  23. Occurs when an author defines a term in one way and uses it in another (usually) opposite way.
    Contradiction in terms
  24. Figurative language
    Devices of languate that are nonliteral; figurative language says one thing but means another.
  25. Language that says one thing but means another.
    Figurative language
  26. Irony
    The intentional use of contradiction to emphasize or make light of something by saying or doing the opposite of what one intends.
  27. The intentional use of contradiction to emphasize or make light of something by saying or doing the opposite of what one intends.
    Irony
  28. Paradox
    A statement that is seemingly contradictory but which could nevertheless be true.
  29. A statement that is seemingly contradictory but which could nevertheless be true.
    Paradox
  30. Simple contradiction.
    An unintentional contradiction.
  31. An unintentional contradiction.
    Simple contradiction.
  32. Character
    Person in a literary work; sometimes referred to as "flat" or "round."
  33. Person in a literary work.
    Character
  34. Sometimes referred to as "flat" or "round."
    Character
  35. Genre
    A type or mode of writing.
  36. A type or mode of writing.
    Genre
  37. Different kinds of genre include _, _, _, _, _, etc.
    • drama
    • short stories
    • essays
    • poems
    • novels
  38. Mimesis
    From the Latin for "mirror," this refers to the author's means of representing or mirroring reality in fiction.
  39. This refers to the author's means of representing reality in fiction.
    Mimesis
  40. Narrator
    In a story, the person speaking to the reader or telling the reader the story.
  41. In a story, the person speaking to the reader or telling the reader the story.
    Narrator.
  42. Plot
    The way an author represents a chain of events within a literary work.
  43. The way an author represents a chain of events within a literary work.
    Plot
  44. Point of view
    The perspective or vantage point by which the reader is able to see or experience certain events within a story or poem.
  45. The perspective or vantage point by which the reader is able to see or experience certain events within a story or poem.
    Point of view.
  46. Setting
    The place where a story occurs. May sometimes refer to the time as well as the place of a story.
  47. The place where a story occurs.
    Setting
  48. May somtimes refer to the time as well as the place of a story.
    Setting
  49. Symbol
    An object, action, or even a person that has acquired meaning beyond itself; anything that represents more than itself or is invested with meaning. Symbols may be contextual or public.
  50. An object, action, or even a person that has acquired meaning beyond itself.
    Symbol
  51. Anything that represents more than itself or is invested with meaning.
    Symbol
  52. Theme
    Unifying, central subject or idea that provides a literary work with its stance or approach.
  53. A unifying, central subject or idea that provides a literary work with its stance or approach.
    Theme
  54. Tone
    The emotional approach or attitude that the writer chooses to use to color his or her work.
  55. The emotional approach or attitude that the writer chooses to use to color his or her work.
    Tone
  56. The essential elements of fiction.
    • plot
    • point of view
    • character
    • setting
    • symbol
    • theme
    • tone
  57. Prose
    Language that is not obviously musical in beat or rhyme and that is printed from the left to the right margin.
  58. Language that is not obviously musical in beat or rhyme and that is printed from the left to the right margin.
    Prose
  59. Four guidelines for effective annotation.
    • 1. Ask questions of the author.
    • 2. Make reminders for yourself.
    • 3. Make note of recurring images, arguments, ideas, words, and phrases.
    • 4. Starting with the title, keep track of what kind of expectations the author seems to be creating.
  60. Antagonist
    The counterforce or opponent who provides conflict in the play or story, controlling or attempting to complicate the life of the central character, or protagonist.
  61. The counterforce or opponent who provides conflict in the play or story, confronting or attempting to complicate the life of the central character.
    Antagonist
  62. Climax
    The culmination of events in the story, novel or play. The highest point of interest or intensity. The point at which the events make an important and irrevocable change.
  63. The culmination of events in the story, novel, or play.
    Climax
  64. The highest point of interest or intensity.
    Climax
  65. The point at which the events make an important and irrevocable change.
    Climax
  66. Conflict
    The central tension and point of suspense in a literary work.
  67. The central tension and point of suspense in a literary work.
    Conflict
  68. Denouement
    The final revelations or developments that occur afteror because of the events of the climax or central conflict.
  69. The final revelations or developments that occur after or because of the events of the climax or central conflict.
    Denouement
  70. Epiphany
    A moment of sudden realization or understanding in which the true meaning of certain events is revealed.
  71. A moment of realization or understanding in which the true meaning of certain events is revealed.
    Epiphany
  72. Exposition
    That part of a play, story, or novel in which the author establishes setting, situations, and often central characters and themes.
  73. That part of a play, story, or novel in which the author establishes setting, situations, and often central characters and themes.
    Exposition
  74. Falling action
    This kind of action is usually composed of the characters' immediate reactions and responses to the climatic events of a story. The characters have not yet resolved their conflicts, but the events are heading toward a conclusion.
  75. This kind of action is usually composed of the characters' immediate reactions and responses to the climatic events of a story.
    Falling action
  76. Foreshadowing
    A prediction within the text. This is often a hint toward some event or situation that will develop later in the story.
  77. A prediction within the text.
    Foreshadowing
  78. This is often a hint toward some event or situation that will develop later in the story.
    Foreshadowing
  79. Protagonist
    The central character in a piece of drama or fiction. The protagonist is the hero, the main character in "contest" or "conflict" with his or her situation or another character (the antagonist).
  80. The central character in a piece of drama or fiction.
    Protagonist
  81. The hero, the main character in "contest" or "conflict" with his or her situation or another character.
    Protagonist
  82. Rising action
    Refers to the increasing conflict or struggle within a story, the culmination of which will result in the climax. This is also the means by which the suspense in a story is established.
  83. Refers to the increasing conflict or struggle within a story, the culmination of which will result in the climax.
    Rising action
  84. This is the means by which the suspense in a story is established.
    Rising action
  85. Subplot
    A second plot, usually one that involves minor characters. This plot is subordinate to the main plot but often affects or is resolved by certain events that occur in the primary plot.
  86. A second plot, usually one that involves minor characters.
    Subplot
  87. Turning point
    The point in a story where things change irrevocably for the characters.
  88. The point in the story where things change irrevocably for the characters.
    Turning point
  89. Explain the difference between story and plot.
    • A story is a narrative of events in chronological order.
    • A plot is a narrative of events, but the emphasis is less on the order of events and more on their relationship to each other.
  90. Fibe basic elements of plot.
    • Exposition
    • Rising action
    • Climax or crisis
    • Falling action
    • Denouement or conclusion
  91. Dramatic irony
    A form of irony in which the reader knows information that the characters in the story do not.
  92. A form of irony in which the reader knows information that the characters in the story do not.
    Dramatic irony
  93. First-person point of view
    One of the characters narrates the story knowing only that information he can observe based on his limited perspective. Uses the first-person pronoun "I" to refer to the narrator.
  94. A type of point of view in which one of the characters narrates the story knowing only that information he can observe based on his limited perspective.
    First-person point of view
  95. This point of view uses the pronoun "I" to refer to the narrator.
    First-person point of view.
  96. Flashback
    A reversion back to events that have previously taken place. This allows the writer to interrupt normal chronological order in his or her narrative.
  97. A reversion back to events that have previously taken place.
    Flashback
  98. Omniscient
    "All-knowing" or able to see everything at once. Usually used in reference to an omniscient narrative voice.
  99. "All-knowing" or able to see everything at once.
    Omniscient
  100. Reflector character
    A character that does not know he is a character and who is unaware of the narrator.
  101. A character that does not know he is a character and who is unaware of the narrator.
    Reflector character
  102. Second-person point of view
    Considerably more rare than first or third person. To identify this point of view, look for the subjective pronoun "you," where "you" is the subject or primary character of the piece.
  103. Point of view using the subjective pronoun "you," where "you" is the subject or primary character of the piece.
    Second-person point of view
  104. Stream of consciousness
    A narrative technique that attempts to simulate the complete flow of character's thoughts. In this form of writing, ideas, thoughts, memories, dreams, sensory impressions, and conversations may combine or intermingle without clear transition or conventions.
  105. A narrative technique that attempts to simulate the complete flow of a character's thoughts.
    Stream of consciousness
  106. In this form of writing, ideas, thoughts, memories, dreams, sensory impressions, and conversations may combine or intermingle without clear transition or conventions.
    Stream of consciousness
  107. Third-person limited point of view
    The writer focuses on the actions and thoughts of only some of the characters. To identify this point of view, look for third-person pronouns like "he" or "she" or proper names in reference to the narrator.
  108. In this type of point of view, the writer focuses on the actions and thoughts of only some of the characters.
    Third-person limited point of view
  109. To identify this point of view, look for pronouns like "he" or "she" or proper names in reference to the narrator.
    Third-person limited point of view
  110. Third-person omniscient point of view
    The writer uses an "all-seeing" or "all-knowing" narrator who is aware of all of the private thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of each character.
  111. The writer uses an "all-seeing" or "all-knowing" narrator who is aware of all of the private thoughts, emotions, and behaviors of each character.
    Third-person omniscient point of view
  112. Third-person objective point of view
    The writer will act as an impartial observer, providing very little comment on the events of the story or behavior of the characters.
  113. The writer will act as an impartial observer, providing very little comment on the event of the story or behavior of the characters.
    Third-person objective point of view
  114. Allegory
    A work in which related symbols work together to produce a moral lesson or indication of progress.
  115. A work in which related symbols work together to produce a moral lesson or indication of progress.
    Allegory
  116. Archetype
    A recurrent image that emerges from deep-seated associations that are anchored in universal patterns or structures of experience.
  117. A recurrent image that emerges from deep-seated associations that are anchored in universal patterns or structures of experience.
    Archetype
  118. Caricature
    Term used to describe characters who are comically distorted by the exaggeration of key traits that make them seem ridiculous or worthy of parody.
  119. Term used to describe characters who are comically distorted by the exaggeration of key traits that make them seem ridiculous or worthy of parody.
    Caricature
  120. Characterization
    The way in which an author represents or portrays a character for the reader.
  121. The way in which an author presents or portrays a character for the reader.
    Characterization
  122. Connotation
    Any association or attitude that is embedded in a word's meaning or is brought to mind by the mention of a word or phrase.
  123. Any association or attitude that is embedded in a word's meaning or is brought to mind by the mention of a word or phrase.
    Connotation
  124. Denotation
    The literal definition of a word, devoid of contextual or emotional issues or connotations.
  125. The literal definition of a word, devoid of contextual or emotional issues or connotations.
    Denotation
  126. Dialect
    Regional variations in the speech of a common language.
  127. Regional variations in the speech of a common language.
    Dialect
  128. Flat character
    A character who is easily descibable or represented with a one-track personality, or one who is representative of a stereotype.
  129. A character who is easily describable or represented with a one-track personality, or one who is representative of a stereotype.
    Flat character
  130. Round character
    A character that is more developed or complicated that a flat character, exhibiting a range of responses, emotions, and loyalties.
  131. A character that is more developed than a flat character, exhibiting a range of responses, emotions, and loyalties.
    Round character
  132. Satire
    The use of humor, wit, and ridicule to criticize, attack, or hold up for scorn. Often, satires are meant to expose some folly in human behavior for the purposes of social change, reform, or awareness.
  133. The use of humor, wit, and ridicule to criticize, attack, or hold up for scorn.
    Satire
  134. Often meant to expose some folly in human behavior for the purposes of social change, reform, or awareness.
    Satire
  135. Mood
    The overriding, dominant emotional quality present in a literary work, created by the author's description of theme, setting, and/or character.
  136. The overriding, dominant emotional quality present in a literary work, created by the author's description of theme, setting, and/or character.
    Mood
  137. Four elements that make up the setting of a story.
    • Geographical location
    • Characters' occupations and daily manner of living
    • Time or period in which the action takes place
    • General environment of the characters
  138. Contextual symbol
    A symbol whose meaning is derived from certain events within the text.
  139. A symbol whose meaning is derived from certain events within the text.
    Contextual symbol
  140. Public symbol
    A symbol that refers to objects, actions, or persons that history, religion, myth, or legend has infused with meaning.
  141. A symbol that refers to objects, actions, or persons that history, religion, myth, or legend has infused with meaning.
    Public symbol
  142. Allusion
    Reference to something outside a story that suggests a thematic connection between the story and a concept, association, or memory that has acquired some significance for the reader.
  143. Reference to something outside a story that suggests a thematic connection between the story and a concept, association, or memory that has acquired some significance for the reader.
    Allusion
  144. Theme
    The central and unifying idea about human experience that grows out of all the other elements in a story.
  145. The central and unifying idea about human experience that grows out of all the other elements in a story.
    Theme
  146. Diction
    The writer's choice or use of words.
  147. The writer's choice or use of words.
    Diction
  148. Style
    The way the author expresses or presents his subject matter. Style is created through diction, syntax, figurative language, dialogue, and all of the choices an author makes.
  149. The way the author expresses or presents his or her subject matter.
    Style
  150. Syntax
    Word order
  151. Elegy
    Often, a poem on the occasion of the death of a particular person. More broadly, a poem on the subject ofdeath or human frailty and mortality.
  152. Often, a poem on the occasion of the death of a particular person.
    Elegy
  153. More broadly, a poem on the subject of death or human frailty and mortality.
    Elegy
  154. Imagery
    Figurative language that refers or makes reference to physical sensations--usually sight and touch. By appealing to the senses in this way, images illustrate concepts, things, or processes.
  155. Figurative language that refers or makes reference to physical sensations.
    Imagery
  156. Persona
    The assumed identity the writer presents when speaking to the reader.
  157. The assumed identity the writer presents when speaking to the reader.
    Persona
  158. Formal structure of a poem.
    The way the poem goes together in terms of its component parts.
  159. The way the poem goes together in terms of its component parts.
    Formal structure
  160. Thematic structure of a poem
    The way the argument or presentation of the material of the poem is developed.
  161. The way the argument or presentation of the material of the poem is developed.
    Thematic structure
  162. Abstract laguage
    Language that refers to concepts, ideas, qualities, or "abstracts" rather than particular people, places, or things. Might refer to that which cannot be experienced by the five senses. Love, pride, and bravery are all abstract terms, whereas rock, man, and car are all concrete and more specific terms.
  163. Language that refers to concepts, ideas, qualities, or "abstracts" rather than particular people, places, or things.
    Abstract language
  164. Might refer to that which cannot be experienced by the five senses.
    Abstract language
  165. Love, pride, and bravery are all _ terms.
    abstract
  166. Concrete language
    Language that employs vivid, graphic images that appeal to the senses, as opposed to abstract language.
  167. Language that employs vivid, graphic images that appeal to the senses.
    Concrete language
  168. Rock, man, and car are all _ and more specific terms.
    concrete
  169. Figurative image
    A type of image in which an image is represented in terms of another image or thing; involves a turn on the literal meaning of the word.
  170. A type of image in which an image is represented in terms of another image or thing.
    Figurative image
  171. Literal image
    A type of image that calls up a sensory representation of the object it describes; does not require change to the obvious meaning of the words that make up the image.
  172. A type of image that calls up a sensory representation of the object it describes.
    Literal image
  173. Understatement
    A highly ironic figure of speech that attempts to represent something as being less important than it is.
  174. A highly ironic figure of speech that attempts to represent something as being less important than it is.
    Understatement
  175. Analogy
    A comparison that uses a known thing or idea to explain something vague or unfamiliar.
  176. A comparison that uses a known thing or idea to explain something vague or unfamiliar.
    Analogy
  177. Conceit
    An extended metaphor or comparison.
  178. An extended metaphor or comparison.
    Conceit
  179. Hyperbole
    Figurative language that includes overstatement or exaggeration.
  180. Figurative language that includes overstatement or exaggeration.
    Hyperbole
  181. Metaphor
    A figure of speech containing two elements in which one element is provided with certain attributes or characteristics by being equated with the second, different element. Or, put simply, something described as though it were something else, as in "Life is a bowl of cherries."
  182. A figure of speech containing two elements in which one element is provided with certain attributes or characteristics by being equated with the second.
    Metaphor
  183. Something described as though it were something else, as in "Life is a bowl of cherries."
    Metaphor
  184. Oxymoron
    Literally means "acutely silly." A figure of speech where contradictory ideas are combined to create a paradoxical phrase or statement. For example, thunderous silence, manic grace, or wise fool.
  185. Literally means "acutely silly."
    Oxymoron
  186. A figure of speech where contradictory ideas are combined to create a paradoxical phrase or statement.
    Oxymoron
  187. Thunderous silence, manic grace, or wise fool are examples of _.
    oxymorons
  188. Simile
    An imaginative figure of speech that shows comparison by using the words like, as, or as if. Unlike the implied relationship and comparison suggested by a metaphor, the simile is a more direct statement that something is like something else. The Robert Burns line "My love is like a red, red rose" is a simile.
  189. An imaginative figure of speech that shows comparison by using the words like, as, or as if.
    Simile
  190. Unlike the implied relationship and comparison suggested by a metaphor, the _ is a more direct statement that something is like something else.
    simile
  191. The Robert Burns line "My love is like a red, red rose" is a _.
    simile
  192. Alliteration
    The repetition of similar consonant sounds, usually occurring at the beginning of consecutive words.
  193. The repetition of similar consonant sounds, usually occurring at the beginning of consecutive words.
    Alliteration
  194. Anapest
    A metrical foot of three syllables. This foot will consist of two unaccented syllables followed by an accented syllable, as in the word jamboree.
  195. A metrical foot of three syllables.
    Anapest
  196. This metrical foot will consist of two unaccented syllables followed by an accented syllable, as in the word jamboree.
    Anapest
  197. Assonance
    The repitition of vowel sounds within a line, sentence, or stanza. Assonance may be internal (for example, an "a" sound in the middle of consecutive words), or it may occur toward the end of lines to prompt a rhyme.
  198. The repetition of vowel sounds within a line, sentence, or stanza.
    Assonance
  199. Ballad
    A narrative poem that focuses on an event or episode and that is usually told without authorial comment.
  200. A narrative poem that focuses on an event or episode and that is usually told without authorial comment.
    Ballad
  201. The form of the ballad consists of _.
    four quatrains of alternating four- and three- stress iambic lines.
  202. The second and fourth lines of a ballad will _.
    rhyme
  203. Typically, ballads will also use a refrain, where _.
    the last lines of each stanza are nearly identical.
  204. Blank verse
    Lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter.
  205. Lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter.
    Blank verse
  206. Caesura
    A strong pause or break within a line of verse. From the Latin for "cutting off."
  207. A strong pause or break within a line of verse.
    Caesura
  208. Couplet
    Two rhymed lines of verse. Couplets may occur as a part of a stanza or may be self-contained and set away from the rest of the text. In this case, the two rhymed lines would be referred to as a "closed couplet."
  209. Two rhymed lines of verse.
    Couplet
  210. Dactyl
    A metrical foot consisting of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables, as in syllable, carousel, and admiral.
  211. A metrical foot consisting of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables, as in syllable, carousel, and admiral.
    Dactyl
  212. Dimeter
    A line of poetry consisting of two metrical feet.
  213. A line of poetry consisting of two metrical feet.
    Dimeter
  214. End rhyme
    A true rhyme, which sounds much like an echo of similar sounds. For example, the rhyming of tense and defense or pure and cure.
  215. A true rhyme, which sounds much like an echo of similar sounds.
    End rhyme
  216. End-stopped
    A line of verse that ends with a period, colon, or semicolon.
  217. A line of verse that ends with a period, colon, or semicolon.
    End-stopped
  218. Enjambment
    When one line in a poem runs on into another without pause or punctuation.
  219. When one line in a poem runs on into another without pause or punctuation.
    Enjambment
  220. Eye rhyme
    A type of rhyme in which words appear to rhyme though their pronunciation is different, as in move and love or break and speak.
  221. A type of rhyme in which words appear to rhyme though their pronunciation is different, as in move and love or break and speak.
    Eye rhyme
  222. Feminine rhyme
    Two-syllable rhymes in which the last syllables are unstressed, such as flying and crying.
  223. Two-syllable rhymes in which the last syllables are unstressed, such as flying and crying.
    Feminine rhyme
  224. Foot
    The smallest unit of verse in a poem; usually composed of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. Some different kinds of metric feet include anapest, iamb, dactyl, trochee, and spondee.
  225. The smallest unit of verse in a poem.
    Foot
  226. Free verse
    Poetry that is open in form, free of a patterned meter and rhyme. A form that allows for a less rigid structure and possesses its own pattern and rhythm.
  227. Poetry that is open in form, free of a patterned meter and rhyme.
    Free verse
  228. A form that llows for a less rigid structure and possesses its own pattern and rhythm.
    Free verse
  229. Heroic couplet
    Lines of iambic pentameter that rhyme aa, bb, cc, and so forth. Often these couplets are closed or end-stopped.
  230. Lines of iambic pentameter that rhyme aa, bb, cc, and so forth.
    Heroic couplet
  231. Heptameter
    A line of verse composed of seven metrical feet.
  232. A line of verse composed of seven metrical feet.
    Heptameter
  233. Hexameter
    A line of verse composed of six metrical feet.
  234. A line of verse composed of six metrical feet.
    Hexameter
  235. Iamb
    A metrical foot consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, as in the word today or defer.
  236. A metrical foot consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, as in the word today or defer.
    Iamb
  237. Internal rhyme
    Two or more words in a line of poetry that rhyme within the line itself rather than at the end of lines.
  238. Two or more words in a line of poetry that rhyme within the line itself rather than at the end of lines.
    Internal rhyme
  239. Masculine rhyme
    A rhyme in which the last syllables are stressed, as in dog and fog.
  240. A rhyme in which the last syllables are stressed, as in dog and fog.
    Masculine rhyme
  241. Meter
    Recurring patterns of syllables in lines of verse. These syllables may be either stressed or unstressed, and there are four basic accented patterns.
  242. Recurring patterns of syllables in lines of verse.
    Meter
  243. Near rhyme
    A type of rhyme in which words almost, but not exactly, rhyme, as in close and lose. Also sometimes referred to as slant rhyme or approximate rhyme.
  244. A type of rhyme in which words almost, but not exactly, rhyme, as in close and lose.
    Near rhyme
  245. Also sometimes referred to as slant rhyme.
    Near rhyme
  246. Also sometimes referred to as approximate rhyme.
    Near rhyme
  247. Nonameter
    A line of verse composed of nine metrical feet.
  248. A line of verse composed of nine metrical feet.
    Nonameter
  249. Octameter
    A line of verse composed of eight metrical feet.
  250. A line of verse composed of eight metrical feet.
    Octameter
  251. Off rhyme
    Where words of marginal structural relationship aer made to function as a rhyme. Often, the rhyme will be approximate since the syllables in the words meant to rhyme will not match completely. For example, the rhyming of the words pearl and alcohol.
  252. Where words of marginal structural relationship are made to function as a rhyme.
    Off rhyme
  253. Often, the rhyme will be approximate since the syllables in the words meant to rhyme will not match completely.
    Off rhyme
  254. Pentameter
    A line of verse composed of five metrical feet.
  255. A line of verse composed of five metrical feet.
    Pentameter
  256. Poetic line
    A unit of poetry consisting of words and phrases that are printed on one line of a page.
  257. A unit of poetry consisting of words and phrases that are printed on one line of a page.
    Poetic line
  258. Quatrain
    A set of four lines, like the two sets of four lines that form the opening of a Petrarchan sonnet.
  259. A set of four lines, like the two sets of four lines that form the opening of a Petrarchan sonnet.
    Quatrain
  260. Rhyme
    Words with repetitions of the final stressed vowel sounds and any sounds following (cat and rat, debate and relate) are said to rhyme.
  261. Words with repetitions of the final stressed vowel sounds and any sounds following (cat and rat, debate and relate) are said to _.
    rhyme
  262. Rhyme scheme
    The pattern of rhyme that exists in a particular poem or the pattern that is required by a form of poetry, such as the sonnet.
  263. The pattern of rhyme that exists in a particular poem.
    Rhyme scheme
  264. The pattern that is required by a form of poetry, such as the sonnet.
    Rhyme scheme
  265. Rhythm
    The quality created by the relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables. A regular pattern of alternation between stressed and unstressed syllables produces meter.
  266. The quality created by the relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables.
    Rhythm
  267. A regular pattern of alternation between stressed and unstressed syllables produces meter.
    Rhyme
  268. Scansion
    A system of reading, charting, or identifying the underlying beat or meter of a poetic work.
  269. A system of reading, charting, or identifying the underlying beat or meter of poetic work.
    Scansion
  270. Shakespearean sonnet
    The Shakespearean, or English, sonnet is arranged as three quatrains and a couplet with the typical rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg.
  271. Sonnet arranged as three quatrains and a couplet with the typical rhyme of abab cdcd efef gg.
    Shakespearean sonnet
  272. Sonnet
    A crafted fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter. There are many different types of sonnets (Petrarchan, Shakespearean, English, etc.).
  273. A crafted fourteen-line poem in iambic meter.
    Sonnet
  274. Spondee
    A type of metrical foot with two consecutive stress syllables, as in the words baseball, moonshine, and daylight.
  275. Stanza
    A group of lines in a poem that have either a structural, topical, or metrical relationship; often they will possess a certain metrical and rhyme scheme that will be repeated or varied in later stanza of the poem.
  276. A group of lines in a poem that have either a structural, topical, or metrical relationship.
    Stanza
  277. Stanza break
    A break between stanzas, or sections, of a poem.
  278. A break between stanzas, or sections, of a poem.
    Stanza break
  279. Stress
    Accent or emphasis that makes one syllable stand out more from others in a word or phrase.
  280. Accent or emphasis that makes one syllable stand out more from the others in a word or phrase.
    Stress
  281. Tetrameter
    A line of verse composed of four metrical feet.
  282. A line of verse composed of four metrical feet.
    Tetrameter
  283. Trimeter
    A line of verse composed of three metrical feet.
  284. A line of verse composed of three metrical feet.
    Trimeter
  285. Triple rhyme
    Three-syllable rhymes with the stress placed on the first syllable, as in beautiful and dutiful.
  286. Three-syllable rhymes with the stress placed on the first syllable, as in beautiful or dutiful.
    Triple rhyme
  287. Triplet
    A sequence of three rhymed lines of verse.
  288. A sequence of three rhymed lines of verse.
    Triplet
  289. Trochee
    A metrical foot coonsisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable, as in the words master or movie.
  290. Verse
    A term often used interchangeably with poetry, but which also referst to a stanza of a poem.
  291. A term often used interchangeably with poetry, but which also refers to a stanza of a poem.
    Verse
  292. Versification
    Verse that is alive with variations and pauses, exceptionally regular lines may help maintain the underlying beat.
  293. Verse that is alive with variations and pauses, exceptionally regular lines may help maintain the underlying beat.
    Versification
  294. Meter
    The combined product of the chosen kind of foot multiplied by the number of feet per line.
  295. The combined product of the chosen kind of foot multiplied by the number of feet per line.
    Meter
  296. Ballad stanza/ballad meter
    Short narrative poem, typically using a four-line stanza that rhymes the second and fourth lines.
  297. Short narrative poem, typically using a four-line stanza that rhymes the second and fourth lines.
    Ballad stanza/ballad meter
  298. Dramatic monologue
    A poem in which the speaker addresses another person (in the poem) in the form of monologue. Often allow the speaker to gradually reveal facets of his personality throughout the narrative.
  299. Dramatic monologues are dramatic because _.
    they have one speaker who is speaking at a particular time and place.
  300. A poem in which the speaker addresses another person (in the poem) in the form of a monologue.
    Dramatic monologue
  301. These poems often allow the speaker to gradually reveal facets of his personality throughout the narrative.
    Dramatic monologue
  302. Elizabethan sonnet
    Another name for the Shakepearean sonnet.
  303. Another name for the Shakespearean sonnet.
    Elizabethan sonnet or English sonnet
  304. English sonnet
    Another name for the Shakespearean sonnet.
  305. Italian sonnet
    Another name for the Petrarchan sonnet.
  306. Another name for the Petrarchan sonnet.
    Italian sonnet
  307. Octave
    A stanza consisting of eight lines. Often, this will be the opening eight lines of an Italian sonnet and is followed by a sestet that concludes the poem. The octave will often be rhymed abbabba.
  308. A stanza consisting of eight lines.
    Octave
  309. Often, this will be the opening eight lines of an Italian sonnet and is followed by a sestet that concludes the poem.
    Octave
  310. Often rhymed abbaabba.
    Octave
  311. Ode
    Finely crafted poem reserved for solemn, important subjects that the writer wishes to pay homage to. These subjectsmay be people or places and occasionally things.
  312. Finely crafted poem reserved for solemn, important subjects that the writer wishes to pay homage to.
    Ode
  313. Petrarchan sonnet
    Also referred to as an Italian sonnet. The Petrarchan sonnet begins with an eight line segment or octave with a rhyme scheme abbaabba followed by a sestet of cdcdee or cdecde. The lines in the octace will often raise a question or address a problem that will then be answered in the sestet.
  314. Also referred to as an Italian sonnet.
    Petrarchan sonnet
  315. Begins with an eight line segment or octave with a rhyme scheme abbaabba followed by a sestet of cdcdee or cdecde.
    Petrarchan sonnet
  316. The lines in the octave will often raise a question or address a problem that will then be answered in the sestet.
    Petrarchan sonnet
  317. Refrain
    A group of lines, usually at the end of a stanza in a folk song, ballad, or poem that echoes, or repeats, at intervals in the poem.
  318. A group of lines, usually at the end of a stanza in a folk song, ballad, or poem that echoes, or repeats, at intervals in the poem.
    Refrain
  319. Sestet
    A stanza consisting of six lines.
  320. A stanza consisting of six lines.
    Sestet
  321. Shakespearean sonnet
    Also called the English or Elizabethan sonnet. This sonnet is arranged as three quatrains and a couplet. The typical rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg.
  322. This sonnet is arranged as three quatrains and a couplet.
    Shakespearean sonnet
  323. This sonnet's typical rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg.
    Shakespearean sonnet.
  324. Tercet
    A set of three lines or a stanza consisting of three lines.
  325. A set of three lines or a stanza consisting of three lines.
    Tercet
  326. Consonance
    A repetition of similar sounds (typically consonant sounds) at the ends of words. For example, purse and curse, horse and purse, or turn and burn.
  327. A repetition of similar sounds (typically consonant sounds) at the ends of words.
    Consonance
  328. Onomatopoeia
    In a poem, the use of words whose sounds seem to correspond to and effect their meanings, like pop, buzz, hiss, or stream.
  329. In a poem, the use of words whose sounds seem to correspond to and reflect their meanings, like pop, buzz, hiss, or stream.
    Onomatopoeia
  330. Personification
    To attribute human qualities to nonhuman things such as animals, certain aspects of nature, abstractions, or ideas.
  331. To attribute human qualities to nonhuman things such as animals, certain aspects of nature, abstractions, or ideas.
    Personification
  332. Alliterating words are those that _.
    share beginning sounds, such as "so sweet" or "the only old owner."
  333. Words that share beginning sounds, such as "so sweet" or "the only old owner":
    Alliterating
  334. Aside
    When more than one character is onstage, these lines of dialogue are spoken by one character and are only meant to be heard by members of the audience.
  335. When more than one character is onstage, these lines of dialogue are spoken by one character and are only meant to be heard by members of the audience.
    Aside
  336. Central conflict
    The main conflict that drives a play's momentum. May be either internal or external.
  337. The main conflict that drives a play's momentum.
    Central conflict
  338. Complication
    Another term for rising action.
  339. Another term for rising action.
    Complication
  340. Dialectic
    The playing off of differing points of view.
  341. The playing off of differing points of view.
    Dialectic
  342. Dramatic irony
    When the audience of a literary work is aware of situations, actions, and/or word meanings that one or more characters are not aware of. In other words, the audience is "in on" something the character is not.
  343. When the audience of a literary work is aware of situations, actions, and/or word meanings that one or more characters are not aware of.
    Dramatic irony
  344. The audience is "in on" something the character is not.
    Dramatic irony
  345. Monologue
    A long, uninterrupted speech by a character. Presented with other characters present.
  346. A long, uninterrupted speech by a character, presented with other characters present.
    Monologue
  347. Reversal
    A reversal or sudden turn in the fortunes of a character. Also called peripety.
  348. A sudden turn in the fortunes of a character.
    Reversal.
  349. Also called peripety.
    Reversal
  350. Soliloquy
    A speech in which a single character reveals his feelings and inner conflict. Occurs when the character is alone onstage, not addressing any other characters directly.
  351. A speech in which a single character reveals his feelings and inner conflict. Occurs when the character is alone onstage, not addressing any other characters directly.
    Soliloquy
  352. Subplot
    Event or events within a play that are secondary to the play's primary driving action and ploty. Typically, the subplot will involve a relationship between two characters that provides a parallel or contrast to the relationship between protagonist and antagonist.
  353. Event of events within a play that are secondary to the play's primary driving action and plot.
    Subplot
  354. Involves a relationship between two characters that provides a parallel or contrast to the relationship between protagonist and antagonist.
    Subplot
  355. Elements of drama
    • Conflict
    • Plot
    • Style
    • Dialogue
    • Character
  356. Divisions of the dramatic plot
    • 1. Exposition
    • 2. Complication
    • 3. Reversal
    • 4. Denouement
  357. Complication
    • Rising action. Bulk of the play's action. Interweaves the character's shifting fortunes.
    • Includes the climax, point of tension and critical juncture.
  358. Reversal
    Peripety. Point at which the complication or climax culminates in the resolution of the plot.
  359. Catharsis
    The circumstances or situations within a play that allows the audience to identify with the hero or to assume that character's experience for a short time.
  360. The circumstances or situations within a play that allows the audience to identify with the hero or to assume that character's experience for a short time.
    Catharsis
  361. Chorus
    In ancient Greece, the chorus was a group of masked dancers who would change lyric hymns at religious festivals. In later Greek plays such as those of Sophocles, the chorus would change odes that would separate the episodes in the play. These odes would serve both as a comment on the action within the play as well as a representation of the audience's reaction to the play itself.
  362. In ancient Greece, a group of masked dancers who would chant lyric hymns at religious festivals.
    Chorus
  363. In later Greek plays, a group would chant odes that would separate the episodes in the play.
    Chorus
  364. Comedy
    In a dramatic production, comedy usually represents situations that are designed to amuse as well as instruct, delight, and entertain. Often, comedies will present ordinary characters confronting their human condition, whereas tragedies tend to focus on the heroic or the ideal.
  365. In a dramatic production, usually presents situations that are designed to amuse as well as instruct, delight, and entertain.
    Comedy
  366. Present ordinary characters confronting their human condition.
    Comedy
  367. Deus ex machina
    From the Latin meaning "god from a machine." In ancient Greek theater, a mechanical contraption would allow the character playing the god to be lowered onto the stage.
  368. From the Latin meaning "god from a machine."
    Deus ex machina
  369. In ancient Greek theater, a mechanical contraption would allow the character playing the god to be lowered onto the stage.
    Deus ex machina
  370. Farce
    An exaggerated form of comedy that derives much of its humor from slapsitck humor, crude jokes, pratfalls, hilariously inept characters, and rambunctious behavior.
  371. An exaggerated form of comedy that derives much of its humor from slapstick humor, crude jokes, pratfalls, hilariously inept characters, and rambunctious behavior.
    Farce
  372. Hubris
    From the Greek meaning "insolence" or "outrage." Best defined as the overreaching pride of humans that inevitably leads to their downfall. In Greek theater, hubris would make human beings forget their limitations and shortcomings and challenge the gods.
  373. From the Greek meaning "insolence" or "outrage."
    Hubris
  374. The overreaching pride of humans that inevitably leads to their downfall.
    Hubris
  375. In Greek theater, makes human beings forget their limitations and shortcomings and challenge the gods.
    Hubris
  376. Paean
    In Greek theater, a hymn of praise, often sung in honor of the god Apollo. Now, the term is applied more broadly to any lyric that celebrates its subject.
  377. In Greek theater, a hymn of praise, often sung in honor of the god Apollo.
    Paean
  378. The term is applied more broadly to any lyric that celebrates its subject.
    Paean
  379. Pathos
    From the Greek for "suffering" and "passion." Refers to a quality in literature or art that arouses pity, sympathy, tenderness, or sorrow.
  380. From the Greek for "suffering" and "passion."
    Pathos
  381. Refers to a quality in literature or art that arouses pity, sympathy, tenderness, or sorrow.
    Pathos
  382. Tragedy
    Along with comedy, this is one of the two dramatic genres as defined in Greek theater. A tragedy will commonly recount the story of the fall of a hero or person who occupies a high position at the beginning of the play, as in the fall of a king or prince. Typically, tragedies are identified by their common features: the tortured protagonist's journey toward self-knowledge or awareness; the fateful, often irrevocable choices he makes; and often, a high body count at the end of the play.
  383. Along with comedy, this is one of the two dramatic genres as defined in Greek literature.
    Tragedy
  384. Will commonly recount the story of the fall of a hero or person who occupies a high position at the beginning of the play, as in the fall of a king or prince.
    Tragedy
  385. Identified by their common features: the tortured protagonist's journey toward self-knowledge or awareness; the fateful, often irrevocable choices he makes; and often, a high body count at the end of the play.
    Tragedy
  386. Tragic flaw
    Otherwise referred to as a "fatal flaw," or shortcoming, in a tragic hero. In his Poetics, Aristotle used the notion of the tragic flaw to provide explanation for the downfall of an otherwise admirable character. The flaw may manifest itself in a character as pride, anger, jealousy, uncertainty,etc.
  387. Otherwise referred to as a "fatal flaw," or shortcoming, ina tragic hero.
    Tragic flaw
  388. In his Poetics, Aristotle used the notion to provide explanation for the downfall of an otherwise admirable character.
    Tragic flaw
  389. Shakespeare's Language
    • Special pronouns and matching verb forms for talking to one rather than several persons.
    • Word order (syntax): objects generally follow the complete verb.
    • Prithee (please), forsooth (in truth), anon (presently, very soon), wherefore (why), ere (before); Would used in the sense of with or want (Would it were true).
  390. Acronym
    A word formed from the first letter (or first few letters) of several words. Example: NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  391. A word formed from the first letter (or first few letters) of several words. Example: NATO for North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
    Acronym
  392. Ambiguous reference
    When a reference, generally a pronoun reference, is not clear; when a pronoun might refer to more than one possible antecedent. Example: Her mother asked her to carry her coat (Whose coat is being referred to--the mother's or the daughter's?)
  393. When a reference, generally a pronoun reference is not clear; when a pronoun might refer to more than one possible antecedent.
    Ambiguous reference
  394. Antecedent
    The noun or phrase to which a pronoun refers. Example: In the sentence, "Bob is third from the left, he is the one standing." Bob is the antecedent for he.
  395. The noun or phrase to which a pronoun refers.
    Antecedent
  396. "Bob is third from the left, he is the one standing." Bob is the _ for he.
    antecedent
  397. Auxillary verb
    A verb that helps form tenses, moods, or voices of other verbs; the most common auxillary verbs are have, be, may, must, do, shall, and will. Example: Have and been in "You must have been studying hard," help form the tense of studying.
  398. A verb that helps form tenses, moods, or voices of other verbs.
    Auxillary verb
  399. Have, be, may, can, must, do, shal, and will are the most common _.
    auxillary verbs
  400. Cliche
    An expression or idea that has become trite and overused. Example: Use this recipe, it's tried and true.
  401. An expression or idea that has become trite and overused.
    Cliche
  402. Collective noun
    A singular noun that denotes a collection of individual people, animals, or things. Example: a pride of lions.
  403. A singular noun that denotes a collection of individual people, animals, or things.
    Collective noun
  404. Comma splice
    When two independent clauses are written as one sentence and joined only by a comma without a coordinating conjunction.
  405. When two independent clauses are written as one sentence and joined only by a comma without a coordinating conjunction.
    Comma splice
  406. Conjunction
    A word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. There are two kinds of conjunctions: coordinating and subordinating.
  407. A word used to connect words, phrases or clauses.
    Conjunction
  408. There are two kinds of conjunctions:
    • Coordinating
    • Subordinating
  409. Contraction
    The shorteningof a word or phrase by the omission of one or more letters. Example: it's for it is.
  410. The shortening of a word or phrase by the omission of one or more letters.
    Contraction
  411. Convention
    A general agreement on the usage of language that is not quite as rigid as a rule would be. Example: It is not a rule, but it is a convention, that long-held principles or theories are written about using the present tense (e.g., Einstein's theory of relativity states that E=mc2).
  412. A general agreement on the usageof language thatis not quite as rigid as a rule would be.
    Convention
  413. Coordinating conjunction
    Joins two words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance or weight in a sentence. The most common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, and yet. Examples: (words) oranges and apples; (phrases) over the river and through the woods, neither a walk in the park nor a run in the rain; (clauses) I want to go out someplace fabulous for dinner, but I also want to lose weight.
  414. Joins two words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance or weight in a sentence.
    Coordinating conjunction
  415. And, but, or, nor, for, and yet are the most common _.
    coordinating conjunctions
  416. Coordination
    The linking of words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance in a sentence by using conjunctions or semicolons.
  417. The linking of words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance in a sentenceby using conjunctions or semicolons.
    Coordination
  418. Fused sentence
    When two or more independent clauses are written as one sentence with no punctuation or conjunction linking them. Fused sentences are idential to comma splices except they lack the comma. Example: Movies are increasingly sophisticated in their use of technology they have extraordinary complex special effects. (There should be a period after technology and a capital T on they.)
  419. When two or more independent clauses are written as one sentence with no punctuation or conjunction linking them.
    Fused sentence
  420. Sentences that are identical to comma splices except they lack the comma.
    Fused sentences
  421. Gerund phrase
    A verb-based noun ending in -ing. A gerund has all the uses of a noun (subject or object of a clause or phrase) but retains many characteristics of its verb base, such as the ability to take an object or an adverbial modifier. Example: Paying your bills on time is preferable to going into debt. (Paying functions as the subject of the sentence but takes an object as the verb to pay would; going functions as the object of the preposition to but has a modifying adverb phrase into debt.)
  422. A verb-based noun ending in -ing.
    Gerund phrase
  423. Phrase that has all the uses of a noun (subject or object of a clause or phrase) but retains many characteristics of its verb base, such as the ability to take on object or an adverbial modifier.
    Gerund phrase
  424. Homonym
    A word pronounced the same as another word but different meaning and, generally, in spelling. Example: Here and hear are homonyms.
  425. A word pronounced the same as another word but different meaning and, generally, in spelling.
    Homonym
  426. Here and hear are _.
    homonyms
  427. Idiom
    A construction or pattern of language contrary to the literal meaning of each word in the phrase. Example: He went the whole nine yards when he refurbished his house. (The meaning of the 'the whole nine yards' has nothing to do with ditance but rather with the thoroughness of completing the task.)
  428. A construction or pattern of language contrary to the literal meaning of each word in the phrase.
    Idiom
  429. He went the whole nine yards when he refurbished his house is an example of _.
    an idiom
  430. Indefinite pronoun
    Refer to nonspecific things or persons. The most common ones are anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, none, no one, somebody, someone, or something. They are considered singular in meaning even when they seem to imply plurality (everyone and everything) and therefore take singular verbs.
  431. Pronouns that refer to nonspecific things or persons.
    Indefinite pronouns
  432. Indefinite pronounds are considered _ in meaning even when they seem to imply _ and therefore take _ verbs.
    • singular
    • pluarility
    • singluar
  433. Independent clause
    A phrase that contains both a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete sentence.
  434. A phrase that contains both a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete sentence.
    Independent clause
  435. Jargon
    The specialized vocabulary and idioms of people in the same profession or academic discipline. Jargon is generally regarded as inappropriate diction if the intended audience is more general than or different from people in the writer's same profession or discipline.
  436. The specialized vocabulary and idioms of people in the same profession or academic discipline.
    Jargon
  437. Modifier
    A word, phrase, or clause that limits or enhances the meaning of another word. If the modified word is a noun or a pronoun, the modifier is considered adjectival. If the modified word is a verb, verb form, or an adjective, the modifier is considered adverbial.
  438. A word, phrase, or clause that limits or enhances the meaning of another word.
    Modifier
  439. If the modified word is a noun or a pronoun, the modifier is considered _.
    adjectival
  440. If the modified word is a verb, verb form, or an adjective, the modifier is considered _.
    adverbial
  441. Mood
    The manner in which the verb indicates the writer's attitude toward the action or state expressed, such as stating a fact (indicative mood); exploring a possibility (subjunctive mood); giving a command (imperative mood); or asking a question (interrogative mood).
  442. The manner in which the verb indicates the writer's attitude toward the action or state expressed.
    Mood
  443. Stating a fact is _ mood.
    indicative
  444. Exploring a possibility is _ mood.
    subjunctive
  445. Giving a command is _ mood.
    imperative
  446. Asking a question is _ mood.
    interrogative
  447. Nonrestrictive element
    An element of a sentence--a clause, phrase, or word--that is considered nonessential to the meaning or sense of the sentence. It is usually set off from the rest of the sentence.
  448. An element of a sentence--a clause, phrase, or word--that is considered nonessential to the meaning or sense of the sentence.
    Nonrestrictive element
  449. Parallelisim
    A structural aspect of sentences wherein lists of three words, phrases, or clauses are structurally similar. Parallism is used for clarity, emphasis, rhythm, and aesthetic appeal.
  450. A structural aspect of sentences wherein lists of three words, phrases, or clauses are structurally similar.
    Parallelism
  451. Used for clarity, emphasis, rhythm, and aesthetic appeal.
    Parallelism
  452. Relative pronoun
    A pronoun that relates back to another word or phrase earlier in the sentence or in a previous sentence. The most common relative pronouns are which, that, who, and whom.
  453. A pronoun that relates back to another word or phrase earlier in the sentence or in a previous sentence.
    Relative pronoun
  454. Restrictive element
    A modifying word, phrase, or clause that restricts or delimits the word it modifies. Example: Most of the apples that are on the ground are worm-eaten. (The phrase that are on the ground restricts the apples that are worm-eaten to just those that are on the ground.)
  455. A modifying word, phrase, or clause that restricts or delimits the word it modifies.
    Restrictive element
  456. Rhetorical context
    The conditions of text creation, including the purpose or function of a written text and its intended audience.
  457. The conditions of text creation, including the purpose or function of a written text and its intended audience.
    Rhetorical context
  458. Standard American English (SAE)
    The name given to a set of language conventions generally agreed to constitute acceptable use of language in academic and business settings in America. While SAE is traditional in what it deems appropriate, its language conventions nonetheless change over time according to usage.
  459. The name given to a set of language conventions generally agreed to constitute acceptable use of language in academic and business settings in America.
    Standard American English (SAE)
  460. Style
    The distinctive and unique manner in which a writer arranges words to achieve particular effects. Style combines the idea to be expressed with the individuality of the author and includes individual word choices, sentence structures and length, tone, irony, and figurative language.
  461. The distinctive and unique manner in which a writer arranges words to achieve particular effects.
    Style
  462. Combines the idea to be expressed with the individuality of the author and includes individual word choices, sentence structures and length, tone, irony, and figurative language.
    Style
  463. Subject complement
    A word or noun phrase that completes the subject after a linking verb, the most common of which is the verb to be. Example: Anthony Hopkins is a brilliant actor. (Actor completes or complements the notion of Anthony Hopkins within the meaning of the sentence.)
  464. A word or noun phrase that completes the subject after a linking verb, the most common of which is the verb to be.
    Subject complement
  465. Anthony Hopkins is a brilliant actor. Actor _ the notion of Anthony Hopkins within the meaning of the sentence.
    completes or complements
  466. Subordinate conjunction
    Introduces a cluase that is dependent on or is modifying another clause in the sentence, including because, when, since, after, and whenever. Relative pronouns such as who, which, and that also function as subordinate conjunctions. Example: Reading is important to doing well on the exam because the more you read, the more familiar you become with written language usage. (Because introduces a subordinate clause that modifies, or explains, the main clause of the sentence.Words that introduce a subordinate clause are called a subordinate conjunctions.)
  467. A conjunction that introduces a clause that is dependent on or is modifying another clause in the sentence, including because, when, since, after, and whenever.
    Subordinate conjunction
  468. Subordination
    Use of a clause that modifies or explains the main clause in a sentence.
  469. Use of a clause that modifies or explains the main clause in a sentence.
    Subordination
  470. Tense
    The time of an action or a state of being, generally with reference to verbs and verb forms. The verb tenses most commonly used are present, past, and future. To express subtleties of time, each of the three major tenses can be expressed in simple form, imperfect form (ongoing action), perfort form (completed action), or conditional form (dependent on another action).
  471. The time of an action or a state of being, generally with reference to verbs and verb forms.
    Tense
  472. Imperfect form of tense is _.
    ongoing action
  473. Ongoing action is _ form of tense.
    imperfect
  474. Perfect form of tense is _.
    completed action
  475. Completed action is the _ form of tense.
    perfect
  476. Conditional form of tense is _.
    dependent on another action.
  477. Form of tense that is dependent on another action is _.
    conditional form
  478. Tone
    A manner of writing or speaking that indicates the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject. Because tone is indicated by words a writer or speaker chooses, tone and diction are closely related in writing and speaking.
  479. A manner of writing or speaking that indicates the writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject.
    Tone
  480. Because tone is indicated by the words a writer or speaker chooses, tone and _ are closely related in writing and speaking.
    diction
  481. Voice
    Shows the relationship between the subject and verb of a sentence. If the subject performs the action, the voice of the verb is active. Example: He finished his homework. If the subject receives the action of the verb, the voice of the verb is passive. Example: His homework was finished by nine o'clock.
  482. Shows the relationship between the subject and verb of a sentence.
    Voice
  483. If the subject performs the action, the voice of the verb is _.
    active
  484. The voice of the verb is active if the subject _.
    performs the action
  485. If the subject receives the action of the verb, the voice of the verb is _.
    passive
  486. The voice of the verb is passive if the subject _.
    receives the action of the verb
  487. Categories of the most common errors of college writers:
    • Spelling
    • Commas
    • Pronouns
    • Vocabulary (choosing the right word)
    • Problems with verbs
    • Problems with prepositions
    • Problems with apostrophes
    • Problems with sentences
  488. Five elements of effective sentences
    • Paralleism
    • Consistency
    • Conciseness
    • Variety and emphasis
    • Coordination and subordination
  489. Brain scanning
    Making a "map" of one's brain.
  490. Making a "map" of one's brain.
    Brain scanning
  491. Brainstorming
    A prewriting technique that utilizes continuous and spontaneous writing.
  492. A prewriting technique that utilizes continuous and spontaneous writing.
    Brainstorming
  493. Clustering
    Drawing visual connections between words and ideas, with the connections centered around a common hub.
  494. Drawing visual connections between words and ideas, with the connections centered around a common hub.
    Clustering
  495. Home showing
    A technique in which the writer imagines the topic as a house and then gives a "tour" of that house to the reader.
  496. A technique in which the writer imagines the topic as a house and then gives a "tour" of that house to the reader.
    Home showing
  497. Linking
    Making connections between words and ideas.
  498. Making connections between words and ideas.
    Linking
  499. Listing
    The creation of a series of lists.
  500. The creation of a series of lists.
    Listing
  501. Outlining
    Summarizing a piece of writing or a plan of attack by breaking it down into headings and subheadings.
  502. Summarizing a piece of writing or a plan of attack by breaking it down into headings and subheadings.
    Outlining
  503. Problem-solution gridding
    Developing a branching list of problems and their possible solutions.
  504. Developing a branching list of problems and their possible solutions.
    Problem-solution gridding
  505. Scratch outline
    A list put into shape.
  506. A list put into shape.
    Scratch outline
  507. Sentence outline
    The most formal of the three types of outlines. Each item in the outline takes the form of a complete sentence, with one sentence devoted to each of the essay's paragraphs.
  508. The most formal of the three outlines.
    Sentence outline
  509. Each item in the outline takes the form of a complete sentence, with one sentence devoted to each of the essay's paragraphs.
    Sentence outline
  510. Time lining
    Creating a chronological list in order to see the scope of a project.
  511. Creating a chronological list in order to see the scope of a project.
    Time lining
  512. Topic outline
    A type of outline that arranges information according to numbered and lettered headings and subheadings.
  513. A type of outline that arranges information according to numbered and lettered headings and subheadings.
    Topic outline
  514. Activity journal
    A type of journal centered on one activity over a period of time, such as a director's journal.
  515. A type of journal centered on one activity over a period of time.
    Activity journal
  516. Commonplace book
    Often, a collection of quotations that appeal to the writer and the writer's responses to them.
  517. Often, a collection of quotations that appeal to the writer and the writer's responses to them.
    Commonplace book
  518. Cubing
    A drafting strategy that requires the writer look at the subject from six different perspectives: describing, comparing, associating, analyzing, apply, and arguing.
  519. A drafting strategy that requires the writer look at the subject from six different perspectives.
    Cubing
  520. Dialoging
    A strategy that involves the exchange of ideas between two people. In a self-dialogue, the writer challenges his or her own perspective, ideas, and beliefs through deliberate questioning of his or her own work.
  521. A strategy that involves the exchange of ideas between two people.
    Dialoging
  522. Dream journal
    A written record of one's dreams.
  523. A written record of one's dreams.
    Dream journal
  524. Freewriting
    A drafting strategy that involves writing freely, without stopping to censor or edit what has been written.
  525. A drafting strategy that involves writing freely, without stopping to censor or edit what has been written.
    Freewriting
  526. Journaling
    A writing strategy in which the writer keeps a regularly maintained written record.
  527. A writing strategy in which the writer keeps a regularly maintained written record.
    Journaling
  528. Looping
    A drafting strategy that builds on freewriting, requiring that the writer first stray away from the topic and then return to it in a cyclic process.
  529. A drafting strategy that builds on freewriting, requiring that the writer first stray away from the topic and then return to it ina cyclic process.
    Looping
  530. Observation journal
    A journal in which one records detailed sensory observations.
  531. A journal in which one records detailed sensory observations.
    Observation journal
  532. Reading journal
    A journal that records thoughts and responses to material read by the writer.
  533. A journal that records thoughts and responses to material read by the writer.
    Reading journal
  534. Questioning
    The process of posing questions as a means of exploring and investigating a topic.
  535. The process of posing questions as a means of exploring and investigating a topic.
    Questioning
  536. Ad hominem argument
    Latin for "to the man." Type of logical fallacy wherein the writer argues not about the issue at hand but rather about the personal characteristics of the person making statements about the issue.
  537. Latin for "to the man."
    Ad hominem
  538. Type of logical fallacy wherein the writer argues not about the issue at hand but rather about the personal characteristics of the person making statements about the issue.
    Ad hominem argument
  539. Anecdote
    A very short story used to provide an example or to illustrate an idea.
  540. A very short story used to provide an example or to illustarte an idea.
    Anecdote
  541. Begging the question
    Often called circular reasoning, is another type of logical fallacy. Most commonly in this flawed logical reasoning, the writer circles back to the beginning statement as the cause of the problem without having added any additional evidence.
  542. Often called circular reasoning.
    Begging the question
  543. Most commonly in this flawed logical reasoning, the writer circles back to the beginning statement as the cause of the problem without having added an additional evidence.
    Begging the question
  544. Chronological
    An organizational pattern based on the order of occurrence. Storytelling, or narrative, relies most heavily on chronological order. Summaries are also often based on the sentence of events. Chronological order can proceed either from the first event to the most recent event of from the most recent event back to the earliest event.
  545. An organizational pattern based on the order of occurrence.
    Chronological
  546. Coherence
    Clear connections between ideas, making explicit to the reader how ideas relate to each other.
  547. Clear connections between ideas, making explicit to the reader how ideas relate to each other.
    Coherence
  548. Definition
    An example of organizational development based on explaining the meanings of the terms under consideration.
  549. An example of organizational development based on explaining the meanings of the terms under consideration.
    Definition
  550. Either-or reasoning
    Also known as false dualism, either-or reasoning is another type of logical fallacy. It presents an issue as though there were only two alternatives and hense leads to oversimplification.
  551. Also known as false dualism
    Either-or reasoning
  552. Presents an issue as though there were only two alternatives and hence leads to oversimplification.
    Either-or reasoning
  553. Fact
    An assertion that can be verified through evidence, observation, research, or experiment.
  554. An assertion that can be verified through evidence, observation, research, or experiment.
    Fact
  555. False analogy
    While an analogy is an identification of suggestion of similarity between two things that are otherwise quite different, a false analogy uses this limited basis of similarity to suggest that the two items compared are similar in many more ways.
  556. Hasty generalization
    Drawing a conclusion from insufficient evidence; also referred to as jumping to conclusions.
  557. Draing a conclusion from insufficient evidence.
    Hasty generalization
  558. Also referred to as jumping to conclusions.
    Hasty generalization
  559. Logical fallacies
    A set of categories of lapses of logical reasoning in setting forth an argument. May seem at first to be logical and reasonable, but they are based on flawed, or fallacious (false), reasoning, Overgeneralizing is one of the most common logical fallacies. Example: when a news article suggests that all HMOs are bad because two or three terrible tragedies occured, particularly if there is no reference to how many similar tragedies occurred in the same time period in non-HMO medical events.
  560. A set of categories of lapses of logical reasoning in setting forth an argument.
    Logical fallacies
  561. May seem at first to be logical and reasonable, but they are based on flawed, or fallacious (false), reasoning.
    Logical fallacies
  562. The most common logical fallacy:
    Overgeneralizing
  563. Narration
    A type of organizational pattern based on telling a story to illuminate or explain an idea.
  564. A type of organizational pattern based on telling a story to illuminate or explain an idea.
    Narration
  565. Non sequitur
    Latin for "it does not follow." In this type of logical fallacy, the conclusion does not follow logically from the premises of earlier statements in the paragraph or argument.
  566. Latin for "it does not follow."
    Non sequitur
  567. In this type of logical fallacy, the conclusion does not follow logically from the premises of earlier statements in the paragraph or arguement.
    Non sequitur
  568. Overgeneralization
    When a general principle is applied too generally than appropriate to a broader population. Often signaled by words such as never or always or by implicit or explicit references to all people within a certain category.
  569. When a general principle is applied too generally than appropriate to a broader population.
    Overgeneralization
  570. Often signaled by words such as never or always or by implicit or explicit references to all people within a certain category.
    Overgeneralization
  571. Oversimplification
    When complex ideas are presented in a simple, dualistic way.
  572. When complex ideas are presented in a simple, dualistic ways.
    Oversimplification
  573. Post hoc argument
    Latin for "after this" and is an abbreviation of a longer Latin phrase, post hoc, ergo, prpter hoc, which means "after this, therefore because of this." This logical fallacy occurs when a writer assumes a cause-effect relationship when the relationship is actually just sequential or chronological.
  574. Latin for "after this"
    Post hoc
  575. This logical fallacy occurs when a writer assumes a cause-effect relationship when the relationship is actually just sequential or chronological.
    Post hoc
  576. Transition
    A word, phrase, sentence, or group of sentences that relates a succeeding sentence or thought with a preceding one.
  577. A word, phrase, sentence, or group of sentences that relates a succeeding sentence or thought with a preceding one.
    Transition
  578. Differentiate between topic, thesis, focus, and main idea.
    • Topic: What you are writing about.
    • Thesis: Your assertion about the topic.
    • Focus: The explicit boundary that you place around the extent to which you will develop your thesis.
    • Main idea: May be almost identical to your thesis but extends the thesis somewhat with your own interpretation of the significance of the thesis.
  579. Level of Generalization
    • Description or report: Info in the form it is observed.
    • Analysis: Info in component parts, shows the relationship between the component parts and the main idea.
    • Synthesis: Summarizes the analysis, presents a higher or deeper level of understanding of the main idea.
    • Evaluation: Judges the situation based on description, analysis, and synthesis.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview