CH 23.txt

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CH 23.txt
2012-04-03 21:14:31
anatomy physiology

Respiratory System
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  1. nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
    upper respiratory
  2. function of upper respiratory (inhale)
    filter, warm, humidify incomming air
  3. function of upper respiratory components
    protect delicate structures of lower respiratory
  4. function of upper respiratory (exhale)
    cool, dehumidify outgoing air
  5. pirmary passageway for entering the respiratory system
  6. air enters through
    paired external nares, or nostrils
  7. where do nostrils lead to?
    opening up into the nasal cavity
  8. space within the flexible tissues of the nose
  9. vestibule epithelium contain
    course hairs, extending across nares
  10. prevents sand, airborne particals, and insects from entering the nose
    course hairs on vestibular epithelium
  11. made up portions of the maxillary and palatine bones
    hard palate
  12. floor of nasal cavity
    hard palate
  13. separates nasal cavity and oral cavity
    hard palate
  14. chamber shared by digestive and respiratory
  15. tissue on laryngopharynx and oropharynx
    stratified squamous epithelium
  16. stratified, squamous epithelium
    resists abrasion, chemical attack, and invasions by pathogens
  17. where inhaled air leaves pharynx and enters larynx
  18. cartilaginous structure that surrounds and protects glottis
  19. unpaired cartilages that form larynx (3)
    • 1- thyroid cartilage
    • 2- cricoid cartilage
    • 3- epiglottis
  20. largest laryngeal cartilage
    thyroid cartilage
  21. consists of hyline cartliage
    thyroid cartilage
  22. forms anterior and lateral walls of the larynx
    thyroid cartilage
  23. what happens during swallowing?
    larynx elevates, epiglottis folds back over glottis (prevents food from entering)
  24. cartilages of Larynx (3)
    • 1- arytenoid
    • 2- corniculate
    • 3- cuneiform
  25. cartilage articulate with superior border of enlarged portion of cricoid cartilage
  26. articulate with arytenoid cartilages
  27. opening and closing of the glottis, and production of sound
    arytenoid and corniculate
  28. involved in the production of sound
    vocal folds a.k.a. vocal cords
  29. the trachea braches with the
  30. trachea branching to the mediastinum gives rise to the _____ and _____
    Right pulmonary bronchi and left pulmonary bronchi
  31. divides the lungs into pulmonary lobules
    interlobular septa
  32. simple squamous epithelium
    alveolar epithelium
  33. Type I cells
    simple squamous epithelium, thin and delicate
  34. alveolar ducts
    thin, delicate, air bubbles
  35. what causes the alveolar walls not to collapse?
    surfactant- without it, the walls would collapse
  36. physical movement of air into and out of the lungs
    pulmonary ventilation; breathing
  37. normal intestinal fluids PO2?
    40 mm Hg
  38. blood entering the systemic circuits PO2?
    40 mm Hg
  39. oxygen molecules bind to ___
    hemoglobin (Hb) molecules (Fe)
  40. where are Fe ions
    at centers of Hb units
  41. important regulator of respiration
  42. increase of arterial blood
  43. prevents overexpansion of lungs during forced breathing
    inflation reflex
  44. location of strech receptors for inflation reflex
    smooth muscle tissues around bronchioles
  45. inflation reflex stimulated by
    lung expanion
  46. inhibits expiratory centers, stimulates inspiratory centers, when lungs deflate
    deflating reflex