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What is digestion?
The chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments suitable for absorption by the digestive epithelium.
Digestive mesenteries are made of
double sheets of peritoneal membrane
What do the mesenteries do?
Stabilize the positions of the attached organs and prevent the intestines from becoming entangled.
What is the inner lining of the digestive tract?
What is the mucosa?
A mucous membrane consisting of an epithelium, moistened by glandular secretios and a lamina propria of areolar tissue
Where is simple columnar epithelium located?
- The stomach
- small intestine
- almost the entire length of the large intestine
This is called the digestive epithelium
The digestive epithelium contains _________ cells.
Where does most absorption occur?
Contractions in these layers alter the shape of the lumen and move the epithelial pleats and folds.
the lamina propria
The submucosa has large ____ ________ and _______ ________
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
The submucosal plexus is also called the
plexus of Meissner
The plexus of Meissner contains ______ ______, parasympathetic ganglionic neurons, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers that innervate the mucosa and submucosa.
- The myenteric plexus is also called the
- plexus of Auerbach
- (mys, intestine)
The Plexus of Auerbach network is made up of
- Parasympathetic ganglia
- Sensory neurons
- sympathetic post ganglionic fibers
Where does the myenteric plexus lie?
between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers
The muscular layer of the digestive tract consist of
visceral smooth muscle tissue
These smooth muscle cells undergo _______ _____ and their ______ triggers a wave of contractions that spreads through the entire _____ ____
- spontaneous depolarization
- muscular sheet
_________ consists of waves of muscular contractions that move a bolus along the length of the digestive tract.
What is a bolus?
A small oval mass of digestive contents (in this case)
These movements churn and fragment the bolus, mixing the contents with intestinal secretions.
The lateral walls of the oral cavity
The cheeks are supported by the pads of fat and the _______ ______
The space between the cheeks (or lips) and the teeth
The passageway between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
The bulk of each tooth that consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone
How does dentin differ from bone?
It doesn't contain cells
The ____ _____ receives blood vessels and nerves from the root canal.
The narrow tunnel located at the root, or base, of the tooth
the root canal
The layer that covers the dentin of the root, providing protection.
firmly anchors the periodontal ligament
The layer that covers the dentin of the crown
The blade-shaped teeth located at the front of the mouth are the _____
Incisors are useful for _____ or _____, such as when you nip off the tip of a carrot stick.
clipping or cutting
These teeth are conical, with a sharp ridgeline and a pointed tip.
the cuspids, or canines
the cuspids are used for
tearing or slashing
these teeth have very large flattened crowns with prominent ridges
The molars excel at ______ and _____
crushing and grinding
The _____ is a hollow muscular tube with a length of appx ___cm and a diameter of about ___cm at its widest point
- LENGTH 25cm (1ft)
- DIAMETER 2cm (0.75in)
When your stomach is relaxed (empty), the mucosa is thrown into prominent folds called _____
The rugae (wrinkles) are temporary features that
let the gastric lumen expand.
Gastric glands are dominated by 2 types of secretory cells, the ______ and _____ _____
Parietal cells secrete
HCl and intrinsic factor
Chief cells are most abundant near
the base of a gastric gland
Chief cells secrete _______, an inactive proenzyme
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