ch 24.txt

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lenorerox84
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145577
Filename:
ch 24.txt
Updated:
2012-04-03 21:35:50
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ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY
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Digestive System, Alegre
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  1. What is digestion?
    The chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments suitable for absorption by the digestive epithelium.
  2. Digestive mesenteries are made of
    double sheets of peritoneal membrane
  3. What do the mesenteries do?
    Stabilize the positions of the attached organs and prevent the intestines from becoming entangled.
  4. What is the inner lining of the digestive tract?
    The mucosa
  5. What is the mucosa?
    A mucous membrane consisting of an epithelium, moistened by glandular secretios and a lamina propria of areolar tissue
  6. Where is simple columnar epithelium located?
    • The stomach
    • small intestine
    • almost the entire length of the large intestine
  7. This is called the digestive epithelium
  8. The digestive epithelium contains _________ cells.
    Goblet
  9. Where does most absorption occur?
    Large intestine
  10. Contractions in these layers alter the shape of the lumen and move the epithelial pleats and folds.
    the lamina propria
  11. The submucosa has large ____ ________ and _______ ________
    Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
  12. The submucosal plexus is also called the
    plexus of Meissner
  13. The plexus of Meissner contains ______ ______, parasympathetic ganglionic neurons, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers that innervate the mucosa and submucosa.
    sensory neurons
  14. Muscularis externa
    • The myenteric plexus is also called the
    • plexus of Auerbach
    • (mys, intestine)
  15. The Plexus of Auerbach network is made up of
    • Parasympathetic ganglia
    • Sensory neurons
    • interneurons
    • sympathetic post ganglionic fibers
  16. Where does the myenteric plexus lie?
    between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers
  17. The muscular layer of the digestive tract consist of
    visceral smooth muscle tissue
  18. These smooth muscle cells undergo _______ _____ and their ______ triggers a wave of contractions that spreads through the entire _____ ____
    • spontaneous depolarization
    • Contraction
    • muscular sheet
  19. _________ consists of waves of muscular contractions that move a bolus along the length of the digestive tract.
    Peristalsis
  20. What is a bolus?
    A small oval mass of digestive contents (in this case)
  21. These movements churn and fragment the bolus, mixing the contents with intestinal secretions.
    segmentation
  22. The lateral walls of the oral cavity
    cheeks
  23. The cheeks are supported by the pads of fat and the _______ ______
    buccinator muscles
  24. The space between the cheeks (or lips) and the teeth
    vestibule
  25. The passageway between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
    fauces
  26. The bulk of each tooth that consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone
    dentin
  27. How does dentin differ from bone?
    It doesn't contain cells
  28. The ____ _____ receives blood vessels and nerves from the root canal.
    pulp cavity
  29. The narrow tunnel located at the root, or base, of the tooth
    the root canal
  30. The layer that covers the dentin of the root, providing protection.
    Cementum
  31. Cementum also
    firmly anchors the periodontal ligament
  32. The layer that covers the dentin of the crown
    Enamel
  33. The blade-shaped teeth located at the front of the mouth are the _____
    incisors
  34. Incisors are useful for _____ or _____, such as when you nip off the tip of a carrot stick.
    clipping or cutting
  35. These teeth are conical, with a sharp ridgeline and a pointed tip.
    the cuspids, or canines
  36. the cuspids are used for
    tearing or slashing
  37. these teeth have very large flattened crowns with prominent ridges
    Molars
  38. The molars excel at ______ and _____
    crushing and grinding
  39. The _____ is a hollow muscular tube with a length of appx ___cm and a diameter of about ___cm at its widest point
    • esophagus
    • LENGTH 25cm (1ft)
    • DIAMETER 2cm (0.75in)
  40. When your stomach is relaxed (empty), the mucosa is thrown into prominent folds called _____
    rugae (wrinkles)
  41. The rugae (wrinkles) are temporary features that
    let the gastric lumen expand.
  42. Gastric glands are dominated by 2 types of secretory cells, the ______ and _____ _____
    • parietal
    • chief cells
  43. Parietal cells secrete
    HCl and intrinsic factor
  44. Chief cells are most abundant near
    the base of a gastric gland
  45. Chief cells secrete _______, an inactive proenzyme
    pepsinogen

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