neurology

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Author:
jpowell22
ID:
145582
Filename:
neurology
Updated:
2012-04-05 21:04:40
Tags:
functional anatomy
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Description:
cranial nerves etc
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  1. What nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord?
    central nervous system
  2. What does the peripheral nervous system contain?
    • cranial nerves
    • brachial plexus
    • spinal nerves
    • lumbosacral plexus
  3. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are a part of what nervous system?
    autonomic nervous system
  4. What takes impulses away from a neuron?
    axon
  5. What brings impulses to the cell body or receives impulses in a neuron?
    dendrite
  6. What is the node of Ranvier?
    myelin sheath interrupted
  7. What is myelin?
    • white fatty substance found in the PNS and CNS
    • increases speed of conduction
  8. What is mostly unmyelinated and found in the cerebral cortex and central portion of the spinal cord?
    gray matter
  9. What is mostly myelinated and found in the major tracts within the spinal cord and fiber systems?
    white matter
  10. What is a synapse?
    • small gap between neurons
    • transmission of impulses from 1 neuron to another
    • very complex physiological action
  11. What is a tract?
    • group of myelinated fibers within CNS
    • carries specific types of information
  12. What are the 2 types of nerve fibers found in the PNS?
    • motor neuron
    • sensory neuron
  13. What is efferent?
    motor
  14. What is afferent?
    sensory
  15. What is a motor neuron?
    • large multipolar cell body
    • multibranched dendrites, long axons
    • terminate at motor end plate of a muscle

    anterior horn -> efferent impulses
  16. What is a sensory neuron?
    • arises in skin
    • runs all the way to its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion

    posterior/dorsal horn -> afferent impulses
  17. What are the 3 main cranial nerves we work with in PT?
    5, 7, 11
  18. How many pair of spinal nerves are there?
    31

    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracid
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 coccygeal
  19. What spinal nerves make up the brachial plexus?
    C5-T1
  20. What spinal nerves make up the lumbosacral plexus?
    T12-S3
  21. What roots does the brachial plexus network consist of?
    • trunks
    • divisions
    • cords
    • terminals
  22. What are the 5 roots of the brachial plexus?
    • C5
    • C6
    • C7
    • C8
    • T1
  23. Each trunk of the brachial plexus splits into what?
    anterior and posterior divisions
  24. How many cords does the brachial plexus have?
    3 - lateral, posterior, medial
  25. What are the 5 terminal nerves of the brachial plexus?
    • musculocutaneous
    • axillary
    • radial
    • median
    • ulnar
  26. What are the roots for the musculocutaneous nerve?
    • C5
    • C6
  27. What are the roots for the axillary nerve?
    • C5
    • C6
  28. What are the roots for the radial nerve?
    • C6
    • C7
    • C8
    • T1
  29. What are the roots for the median nerve?
    • C6
    • C7
    • C8
    • T1
  30. What are the roots for the ulnar nerve?
    • C8
    • T1
  31. What are the 3 muscular innervations for the musculocutaneous nerve?
    • coracobrachialis
    • biceps
    • brachialis
  32. What is the sensory distribution for the musculocutaneous nerve?
    anterolateral forearm
  33. What are the 2 muscle innervations for the axillary nerve?
    • deltoid
    • teres minor
  34. What is the sensory distribution for the axillary nerve?
    lateral arm over lower portion of deltoid
  35. What are the 5 muscle innervations for the radial nerve?
    • triceps
    • anconeus
    • brachioradialis
    • supinator
    • wrist,finger,thumb extensors
  36. What are the sensory distributions for the radial nerve?
    • posterior arm
    • posterior forearm
    • radial side of posterior hand
  37. What are the 4 muscular innervations of the ulnar nerve?
    • flexor carpi ulnaris
    • flexor digitorum profundus
    • interossei
    • 4th and 5th lumbricles
  38. What is the sensory distribution for the ulnar nerve?
    4th finger (medial portion)
  39. What are the 3 muscular innervations for the medial nerve?
    • pronators
    • wrist and finger flexors on radial side
    • most thumb muscles
  40. What is the sensory distribution for the medial nerve?
    palmar aspect of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and radial half of the 4th fingers


    carpal tunnel
  41. What nerve roots compose the lumbosacral plexus?
    L1-S3
  42. The Lumbosacral plexus divides into what 4 things?
    • roots
    • branches
    • divisions
    • peripheral nerves
  43. What are the 6 nerves of the lumbosacral plexus?
    • obturator
    • femoral
    • superior gluteal
    • inferior gluteal
    • common peroneal
    • tibial
  44. What are the nerve roots for the obturator nerve?
    • ant.
    • L2
    • L3
    • L4

    hip adductors
  45. What are the nerve roots for the femoral nerve?
    • post.
    • L2
    • L3
    • L4

    hip flexors, quads
  46. What are the nerve roots for the superior gluteal nerve?
    • post.
    • L4
    • L5
    • S1
  47. What are the nerve roots for the inferior gluteal nerve?
    • post.
    • L5
    • S1
    • S2

    gluteus maximus
  48. What are the nerve roots for the common peroneal nerve?
    • post.
    • L4
    • L5
    • S1
    • S2
  49. What are the nerve roots for the tibial nerve?
    • ant.
    • L4
    • L5
    • S1
    • S2
    • S3

    ankle plantarflexors
  50. The sciatic nerve divides into what 2 nerves and is connected by what?
    • common peroneal
    • tibial

    connected by a common sheath
  51. The UMN has to do with what nervous system?
    CNS-brain and spinal cord

    stroke...UMN lesion (something goes wrong)
  52. The LMN has to do with what nervous system?
    PNS and spinal nerves
  53. What 4 conditions are involved with UMN?
    • spasticity
    • hyperreflexia
    • babinski
    • clonus
  54. What are the 3 conditions involved with LMN?
    • flaccidity
    • marked atrophy
    • hyporeflexia

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