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What nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord?
central nervous system
What does the peripheral nervous system contain?
- cranial nerves
- brachial plexus
- spinal nerves
- lumbosacral plexus
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are a part of what nervous system?
autonomic nervous system
What takes impulses away from a neuron?
What brings impulses to the cell body or receives impulses in a neuron?
What is the node of Ranvier?
myelin sheath interrupted
What is myelin?
- white fatty substance found in the PNS and CNS
- increases speed of conduction
What is mostly unmyelinated and found in the cerebral cortex and central portion of the spinal cord?
What is mostly myelinated and found in the major tracts within the spinal cord and fiber systems?
What is a synapse?
- small gap between neurons
- transmission of impulses from 1 neuron to another
- very complex physiological action
What is a tract?
- group of myelinated fibers within CNS
- carries specific types of information
What are the 2 types of nerve fibers found in the PNS?
- motor neuron
- sensory neuron
What is afferent?
What is a motor neuron?
- large multipolar cell body
- multibranched dendrites, long axons
- terminate at motor end plate of a muscle
anterior horn -> efferent impulses
What is a sensory neuron?
- arises in skin
- runs all the way to its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion
posterior/dorsal horn -> afferent impulses
What are the 3 main cranial nerves we work with in PT?
5, 7, 11
How many pair of spinal nerves are there?
- 8 cervical
- 12 thoracid
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 1 coccygeal
What spinal nerves make up the brachial plexus?
What spinal nerves make up the lumbosacral plexus?
What roots does the brachial plexus network consist of?
What are the 5 roots of the brachial plexus?
Each trunk of the brachial plexus splits into what?
anterior and posterior divisions
How many cords does the brachial plexus have?
3 - lateral, posterior, medial
What are the 5 terminal nerves of the brachial plexus?
What are the roots for the musculocutaneous nerve?
What are the roots for the axillary nerve?
What are the roots for the radial nerve?
What are the roots for the median nerve?
What are the roots for the ulnar nerve?
What are the 3 muscular innervations for the musculocutaneous nerve?
What is the sensory distribution for the musculocutaneous nerve?
What are the 2 muscle innervations for the axillary nerve?
What is the sensory distribution for the axillary nerve?
lateral arm over lower portion of deltoid
What are the 5 muscle innervations for the radial nerve?
- wrist,finger,thumb extensors
What are the sensory distributions for the radial nerve?
- posterior arm
- posterior forearm
- radial side of posterior hand
What are the 4 muscular innervations of the ulnar nerve?
- flexor carpi ulnaris
- flexor digitorum profundus
- 4th and 5th lumbricles
What is the sensory distribution for the ulnar nerve?
4th finger (medial portion)
What are the 3 muscular innervations for the medial nerve?
- wrist and finger flexors on radial side
- most thumb muscles
What is the sensory distribution for the medial nerve?
palmar aspect of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and radial half of the 4th fingers
What nerve roots compose the lumbosacral plexus?
The Lumbosacral plexus divides into what 4 things?
- peripheral nerves
What are the 6 nerves of the lumbosacral plexus?
- superior gluteal
- inferior gluteal
- common peroneal
What are the nerve roots for the obturator nerve?
What are the nerve roots for the femoral nerve?
What are the nerve roots for the superior gluteal nerve?
What are the nerve roots for the inferior gluteal nerve?
What are the nerve roots for the common peroneal nerve?
What are the nerve roots for the tibial nerve?
The sciatic nerve divides into what 2 nerves and is connected by what?
connected by a common sheath
The UMN has to do with what nervous system?
CNS-brain and spinal cord
stroke...UMN lesion (something goes wrong)
The LMN has to do with what nervous system?
PNS and spinal nerves
What 4 conditions are involved with UMN?
What are the 3 conditions involved with LMN?
- marked atrophy