The activity of knowing and the process through which knowledge is acquired and problems are solved.
Cognitive structures, organized patterns of action or thought that people construct to interpret their experiences.
The process of adjusting to the demands of environment
The process by which we interpret new experiences in terms of existing schemes or cognitive structures.
The process of modifying existing schemes to better fit new experiences.
Infants are more interested in their own bodies than manipulating toys. Infants repeat their actions relating to their own bodies that had initially happened by chance.
ex. thumb in mouth
Primary circular reactions
involves something more than just self involves self and something in the infants external environment. 8-12 months
secondary circular reactions
it is in the babies interest to repeat and action with variations.
Ex. and infant will experiment launching oatmeal from his highchair at all different velocities.
Tertiary circular reaction
The fundamental understanding that objects continue to exist even though they are not there.
The idea that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearence is altered in some superficial way.
the tendency to center attention on a single aspect of the problem. They focus on height alone and coclude tha the taller one has more liquid.
the process of mentally undoing or reversing an action
The ability to conceptualize transformations, or processes of change from one state to another.
Ex. Ice ----> water
The tendency to view the world solely from one's own perspective and have difficulty recognizing other points of view.
Reasoning from general ideas or rules to their specific implications. formulating a hypothesis.. thinking before doing.
Difficulty differentiating one's own thoughts and feeling from those of other people.
confusing your own thoughts with those of a hypothesized audience for your behavior.
ex. the teenage girl who ends up with pizza sauce on her shirt may think that everyone is looking at her and saying what a slob she is.
A tendency to think that you and your thoughs and feelings are unique.
ex. a teen thinks no one has ever loved like her , or she will never get pregnant
The gap between what a learner can accomplish independently and what she can accomplish with the guidence and encouragement of a more skilled partner.
Zone of proximal development
Actively participating in culturally relevant activities with the aid and support of their parents and other knowledgeable guide.
The more skilled person gives structured help to a less skilled learner but gradually reduces the help as the less skilled learner becomes more competent.
speech to oneself that guides one's thought and behavior.