PSYC 325

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  1. According to Aron(s), what is central to human motivation?
    self expansion- the desire to overlap or blend with another person having access to their insights and experiences
  2. What is the propinquity effect?
    the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends.
  3. What is the simplest determinant of interpersonal attraction?
  4. What did Festiner and colleagues (1960) determine about attraction and propinquity?
    that it relies on functional distance, the certain aspects of architectural design that make it likely that some people will come into contact more than others.
  5. What does the apartment example of the propinquity effect demonstrate?
    functional distance
  6. What is the mere exposure effect?
    the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more we like it. Unless our general feelings towards someone are negative, familiarity generally breeds attraction and liking.
  7. What is the impact of computer technology (chat rooms, e-mail) on the propinquity effect?
    Its impact is that basically you can get familiar with someone without physical exposure.
  8. What did McKenna and collegues find about internet relationships and face to face interactions among their participants?
    they found that relationships formed over the internet resembled those relationships developed face to face in terms of quality and depth
  9. What is attraction by similarity?
    the attraction to people who are like us
  10. What does research evidence reveal about whether people are more attracted to each other based on similarity or complementarity (attraction to people who are opposite to us)?
    Research shows that complementary to the common belief that opposites attract, it is similarity that draws peopel together
  11. What important similarities between people predict attraction in relationships?
    similarity in terms of attitudes and values and sometimes even activity preferences can be a stronger predictor of attraction than attitudes
  12. Why is similarity important to attraction? What boosts someones attractiveness?
    • 1. we think that people who are similar to us will like us
    • 2. people who are similar provide important social validation for what we believe in-make us feel we are right
    • 3. it is more enjoyable to interact with someone who agrees with you
  13. What is reciprocal liking?
    when you like someone and that person likes you. requires that you like yourself in the first place because negative self concepts tend to be skeptical that other people will even like them
  14. Why does reciprocal liking work as a self fulfilling prophecy?
    because if you know that someone doesnt like you, you will act according to that like disagreeing with them about things you maybe wouldnt openly disagree with if you thought the person liked you.
  15. In the classic study by Walster, what attribute did the students choose to determine if they liked each other?
    the overriding determinant about whether they liked the other person was physical attractiveness
  16. When strangers are formign their first impressions of each other, what seems to be the main behaviour determining attribute? Are people willing to admit this feat (based on studies by Genest)?
    physical attractiveness. People are aware of the value they put on looks but they wont admit it if they can get away with it
  17. Where do most people obtain their criteria of beauty?
    the media
  18. What did the studies by Cunningham reveal about what men and women find attractive?
    • Men find high eyebrows, large pupils a big smile and large eyes, small chin, narrow cheekbones most attractive. Beauty in the female is associated more with child-like qualities
    • Women find a large chin, big smile, prominant cheekbones and large eyes most attractive
    • Both sexes find large eyes in the opposite sex to be attractive, this has been considered a "baby face" feature-thought to be attractive because elicits warmth and nurturance in percievers.
    • Both sexes also admire prominant cheekbones-found in sexually mature adults
  19. Why do people like "average" composite faces in the study by Langlois and Roggman?
    because teh composite face takes away some of the unfamiliar variation that makes up individual faces. If made up of 2 attractive faces, we will find that face more attractive in comparison.
  20. Are there differences in what some cultures find attractive?
    as a general consensus it seems that no, percievers think that some faces are just better looking than others, regardless of cultural background.
  21. What has research revealed about attractiveness and similarity?
    It seems that people find faces that look most similar to their own more attractive-perhaps due to familiarity
  22. What is the main underlying concept of propinquity, reciprocal liking and similarity and physical attractiveness?
  23. What are the reasons for our underlying preferences?
    familiarity may be the expression of a preference for what we know vs what is unfamiliar and potentially dangerous
  24. What is the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype?
    the belief most people have that physical attractiveness is highly correlated with other desirable traits.
  25. What did researchers find when they asked people to assign positive qualities to photos of attractive and unattractive women?
    They found that participants attributed more positive qualities to attractive women regardless of age. However, senior men attributed more positive qualities to attractive and YOUNG women than to attractive and older women.
  26. Do people alter their behaviours based on if they are talking to an attractive or an unattractive person?
    It seems that yes they do. Upon believing he was talking to an attractive woman, the male participant spoke to her in a way that brought out her most sparkling qualities ( a self fulfilling prophecy that "regular" people can act beautiful)
  27. The what is beautiful is good stereotype appears across cultures (including physical attractiveness) but what differs is what cultures attribute to be beautiful. What did Korean (collectivist cultures) people find beautiful? how does this differ to western societies?
    integrity, concern for others however in western socieities, more weight is given to the qualities of the person including his or her appearance.
  28. What is the misattribution of arousal?
    the process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do because the source of arousal is often difficult to pinpoint
  29. How did Rubin define the concept of love?
    he defined love as the feelings of intimacy, attachment, and passion and argued that love is a feeling distinct from liking.
  30. What is companionate love?
    the feelings of intimacy and affection we feel for another person about whom we care deeply. Most often experienced in nonsexual relationships such as close friendships, family relationships but can also be experienced in sexual relationships.
  31. What is passionate love?
    feelings of intense, longing accompanied with physiological arousal we feel for another person. When reciprocated we feel fulfilled, when its not we feel despair.
  32. How is companionate love viewed by ordinary people?
    companionate love is seen as capturing the meaning of love, it is relied on more when deciding whether a relationship was progressing or deteriorating.
  33. What are the gender differences in love?
    • Women hold a more practical, friendship based orientation to love (a more companionate view)
    • Men tend to fall in love more quickly than women and are likely to believe that true love lasts forever. Give higher ratings to romantic and passionate love.
    • Both sexes give companionate love the highest ratings for the definition and experience of love.
    • these differences are found cross culturally
  34. How we experience love is culturally determined. What are the cultural differences of love?
    • Romantic love has less value in collectivist socieities than in individualistic socieities and family is taken into account upon choosing who to marry.Value companionate love more.
    • Romantic love is a highly individual experience in individualistic societies, the decision of who to marry is a highly personal one. Value passionate love more.
  35. What is the evolutionary approach to love?
    men and women are attracted to different characteristics based on reproductive success. Men are attracted to appearance, women are attracted to resources. It is advantageous for males to pursue many females, and for females to pair infrequently, and with a carefully chosen male.
  36. What is attachment theory?
    the theory that our behaviour in adult relationships is based on our experiences as infants with our parents or caregivers. People develop expectations about relationships based on their interactions with primary care giver.
  37. What are attachment styles?
    expectations people develop about relationships with others based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver (mom)
  38. What is a secure attachment style?
    trust, lack of concern of beign abandoned, feel worthy and liked
  39. What is avoidant attachment style?
    suppression of attachment needs because attempts for intimacy have been rejected. People have a hard time getting close to others.
  40. What is anxious/ambivalent attachment style?
    concerned that others wont reciprocate desire for intimacy, resulting in anxiety. Have less satisfying relationships because become obsessive, fearing partner will not be as intimate as they desire.
  41. Kim Bartholomew proposed that there are 2 types of avoidant attachment. What are they?
    • fearful avoidant type: afraid of getting hurt so avoid close relationships
    • dismissive avoidant type: self sufficient nad claims not to need close relationships
  42. Is it possible to have relationship specific attachment?
    Yes. We can have different types of attachment to different people in our lives that is different than our general attachment style.
  43. What is social exchange theory?
    the theory that how people feel about a relationship is determined by their percieved reward, cost, outcome, and compairison level for alternatives
  44. What is the reward/cost ratio?
    the balence of costs and benefits in a relationship. If the costs outweigh the benefits the result is dissatisfaction with the relationship
  45. What is a comparison level?
    Peoples expectations about what they deserve in terms of rewards and costs in a relationship
  46. What is the comparison level for alternatives?
    the expectations people have about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship
  47. People with a low comparison level for alternatives will be ........ likely to stay in a costly relationship. Why?
    more likey to stay in a costly relationship. Because to them, what they have is not great but they doubt they could find anything better out there.
  48. What is an additional factor that must be considered to understand close relationships-based on the fact that people do not leave their relationships EVEN when dissatisfied?
    A persons level of investment (based on the investment model)
  49. What is the investment model of close relationships?
    the theory that commitment to a relationship is determined by satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, comparisons level and comparison level to alternatives and how much of what they invested in the relationship would lost if they left their relationship

    Feelings of commitment to an abusive relationship are often greater if women have poorer economic alternatives, are more invested (married, children) and were less dissatisfied (experienced less abuse).
  50. What is equity theory? (hint: you get what you give)
    the theory that people are happiest with relationships in which rewards and costs that a person experiences and contributions he or she makes are roughly equal to the rewards, costs, and contributions of the other person.
  51. What are exchange relationships?
    relationships that are governed by the need for equity (i.e. for a comparable ratio of rewards and costs). Experienced between casual friends or aquaintences.
  52. What are communal relationships?
    relationships in which peoples primary concern is being responsive to the other persons needs. They believe that things will balence out in the long run. If however there is a chronic imbalance, the relationship may suffer. More often occuring in romantic and long term relationships.
  53. What is the commitment calibration hypothesis?
    the hypothesis that whether adversity has a pos or negative effect on a relationship is relative to the leve of adversity and the level of commitment to the relationship. Mainly, if the level of adversity is lower than the level of commitment than the relationship will NOT be threatened. e.g. minor problems have little effect on long term relationships.
  54. If the level of adversity is high and the level of commitment to relationship is low, what would happen?
    the relationship would break up, there is little to hold on to for a great amount of conflict.
  55. What did research by Menzies-Tolman and Lydon find about commited people in realtionships and their level of forgiveness?
    The more committed people are to their relationships, the more forgiving they are of their partners transgressions. High in commitment rate wrongdoings less severely.
  56. What are gender differences in adversity in relationships? (follow up studies of Menzies-Tolman and Lydon)
    women to adversity (temptation) by shoring up their commitment to their partner while men are less likely to show this pattern unless coached to defend their relationship.
  57. How commited we are to a relationship plays an important role on whether it is maintained. True or False.
  58. What are positive illusions?
    Idealization of our romantic relationships and partners in order to maintain the relationship.
  59. People often engage in creative storytelling to maintain positive perceptions of our partners and our relationships regardless of the facts. In a study by Murray and Holmes and Griffin, what was found about idealistic rather than realistic views of partners?
    1,ratings of partners resembled ratings of ideal partners, this assumption means taht people who view their partner in highly positive ways is a means of maintaining a relationship. 2.Idealization has survival value because relationships where partners idealize one another are likely to endure.
  60. What are gender differences in positive illusions?
    • Men tend to engage in them only if they are highly committed to a relationship.
    • Women tend to hold unrealistically postive perceptions of their partner regardless of their level of committment.
  61. What are common reasons that relationships end?
    dissimilarity (makes sense as similarity is a predictor of attractiveness) most likely to occur for qualities on which partners were dissimilar and also just from boredom
  62. What does social exchange theory predict about when relationships are to end?
    likely to end when rewards are low and costs are high
  63. What are strategies for breaking up? in friendships/romantic relationships?
    withdrawal and avoidance are common for friendship terminations, Open confrontation is a common strategy for ending romantic relationships,
  64. What influences how people feel when a relationship ends?
    the role they played in the decision to end the relationship. If you do the breaking up, experience lowest levels of depression but still experience some negative effects. If broken up with, experience highest levels of depressiony symptoms. If mutual, falls in a middle area, suffer more than those that did breaking up (can be more stressful than a unilateral decision to end a relationship).
  65. What is the degree of stress experience after a break up influenced by?
    social exchange theory. People with high relationship satisfaction and commitment reported more distress when relationship ended. People experience less distress if have alternatives but more distress if attractive alternatives are available to their former partner.
Card Set:
PSYC 325
2012-04-04 04:37:13

Chapter 9: Interpersonal Relationships
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