ALTERED MENTAL HEALTH
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What is bipolar Disorder:
is marked by shits in mood, energy, and ability to function. The course of the illness is variable, and symptoms range from severe mania-an exagerated euphoria or irritability to severe depression.
What are the three types of bipolar disorder? Most severe to least?
Bipolar I disorder--one episode of mania alternates with major depression. Psychosis may accompany the manic episode.
Bipolar II disorder-Hypomanic episode alternate with major depression. Psychosis is not present here---hypomanic tends to be euphoric and often increases functioning. The depression tends to put people at particular risk for suicide
Cyclothymia--hypomanic episodes alternate with minor depressive episodes (at least 2 years in duration). Tend to have irritable hypomanic episodes.
What is rapid cycling?
four or more mood episodes in a 12-month period is used to indicate more severe symptoms, such as poorer global functioning, high recurrence risk, and resistance to conventional somatic treatments.
Bipolar I tends....
to begin with a depressive episode in women 75% and 67% in men. More common among males. Men have legal problems and commit acts of violence.
- more common among females. Women with bipolar disorders are more likely to abuse alcohol, commit suicide, and develop thyroid disease; is undiagnosed and often mistaken for depression or personality disorders.
- Most common form of bipolar disorder---the source of significant morbidity and mortality, due to severe depression.
begins in adolescent or early adulthood. 15% to 50% will develop bipolar I or bipolar II disorder.
What are co-occurring disorders for all bipolar disorders?
panic attacks 62%, alcohol abuse 39%, social phobia 38%, oppositional defiant disorder 37%, specific phobia 35%, SAD 35%. Substance use disorders were much higher in bipolar I than in bipolar II disorders.
The incidence of borderline personality disorder occurring along with bipolar disorder is high.
What is unipolar Depression
- depression without episodes of mania
- Depressive episodes in bipolar disorder affect younger people, produce more episodes of illness, and require more frequent hospitalization.
What is the most successful approach to treatment of bipolar disorder?
Heritability of bipolar disorder?
have strong heritability. the influence of genetic factors is much greater than the influence of external factors.
First line of therapy for bipolar disorder?
What are the casual factors in mania and depression?
Neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. One simple explanation is that too few of these chemical messengers will result in depression and an over supply will cause mania.
Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with depressed moods and seen in some patients experiencing rapid cycling.
Assessment of Bipolar Disorder
Early diagnosis can help avoid suicide attempts, alcohol or substance abuse, marital or work problems, development of medical comorbidity.
Characteristic of mania are: mood, behavior, though processes and speech patterns and cognitive function
Mood may change quickly to irritation and anger when the person is thwarted. The irritability and belligenrence may be short-lived, or it may become the prominent feature of the manic phase of bipolar disorder..
During hypomania, they have voracious appetites for social engagement, spending, and activity, even indiscriminate sex. Constant activity and a reduced need for sleep rpevent proper rest.
What is flight of ideas?
is a nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech with abrupt changes from topic to topic that are usually based on understandable associations or plays on words. Speech is rapid, verbose, and circumstantial. Includes joking, puns, and teasing, usually sexually explicit and ranges from grossly inappropriate to vulgar. Speech is also loud, bellowing or even screaming. As mania escalates, it can give way to clang associations.
What is clang associations:
Are the stringing together of words because of their rhyming sounds without regard to their meaning.
What is grandiosity
inflated self-regard. is apparent in both the ideas expressed and the person's behavior. People with mania may exagerate their achievements or importance, state that they know famous people. No delusions or hallucinations is present during hypomania.
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