Biology Test 4 classes and such

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  1. Biology starts with snails from L 25
  2. A shell of calcium carbonate is laid down in layers by
    the mantle
  3. Nudibranch
    lack a shell, nickked gills
  4. bright colors on nudibranch are
    aposematism, warning coloration advertising noxious qualities
  5. Class Bivalvia,clams, scallops, etc.
    foot is altered for digging, mantle is altered to allow water to flow in and out
  6. Bivalves are ------------ feeders
    suspension (filter)
  7. Class Cephalopoda
    (squid, nautilus, octopuses)
    Cephalopoda-molluscan “foot” modified to form tentacles, most useful in pray capture

    also have great eyesight
  8. squids and octopi also have great---------------. How do they do this?
    • color change abilities
    • millions of chromatophores contract to contract pigments, causing color change
    • complex nervous system
  9. Ecdysozoa
    Molting (ecdysis) shedding an exoskeleton or cuticle to accommodate growth
  10. Nematoda(roundworms)
    • • Marine, freshwater, terrestrial, parasitic
    • • Range in size from < 1mm to 9 m
    • • Undergo four molts of their cuticle
    • • Pseudoceolomate
  11. Pseudocoelomate:
    coelom lies between mesoderm & endoderm as opposed to Coelomate:coelom lies withinthe mesoderm
  12. Nematoda Significance of pseudocoloem in
    • Muscles contract around fluid filled
    • cavity expel water, allowing movement
  13. significant nematoda
    Caenorhabditis elegans

    • important model organism for embryonic development
    • 959 somatic cells
  14. causes the disease trichinosis
    A nematode
  15. Arthropoda(arthropods)
    • • > 1,000,000 described species
    • • Marine, freshwater, terrestrial
    • • Segmentation
    • • Exoskeleton (made of chitin & protein)
    • • Jointed appendages
  16. Majority of Arthropoda are
  17. Trilobites were hit hard by ------- and went extinct in
    Devonian mass extinction

    Permian mass extinction
  18. What were the first animals to make the transition from water to land?
  19. Oldest known animal to have lived on land
  20. Millipedes
    • Two pairs of legs per segment
    • Many millipedes emit poisonous secretionsor hydrogen cyanide as defense
    • Millipedes and capuchin monkeys
  21. Centipedes
    • One pair of legs per segment
    • “Fangs” = appendages of the first trunk segment
  22. Chelicerata
    (spiders, ticks, mites, horseshoecrabs, daddy longlegs, scorpions)
  23. Chelicerae =
    pair of modified appendages used for feeding
  24. spider silk
    (Proteins)1. High tensile strength2. Light weight3. Elastic
  25. Spider web function
    • Interposition
    • Stop
    • Retain
  26. Ballooning
    dispersal mechanism for spiders
  27. Spider venom
    • All spiders (except a single family) have venomglands
    • Mixture of neurotoxic polypeptides, proteolyticenzymes, biogenic amines
    • Only 20–30 of 30,000+ species are harmful to man
  28. Class Insecta
    • (insects)
    • Freshwater, terrestrial, few saltwater
    • Major segmentation: head, thorax, abdomen
    • Ventral nerve cord
    • Open circulatory system
    • Metamorphosis
    • Two pairs of wings
  29. Insect compound eye is made of
    thousands of omatidium, which are all technically functional eyes and like a pixal on a computer screen come together to make an image to the insect
  30. Insects have a ------------ circulatory system with -----------
    open circulatory system with hemolymph
  31. Metamorphosis
    An abrupt, substantial change inmorphology from one developmentalstage to another in an animal’s life cycle
  32. incomplete metamorphosis
    one stage of larval development passes into another. The last one is bigger that the previous one but there does not seem to be marked morphological change. Larva- instars- nymphs- adult. Cockroach is an example.
  33. Complete metamorphosis
    In complete metamorphosis one stage differs markedly from the other, for example, larva is very much different from the shape of pupa and the adult is very much different from the pupa.
  34. paranotal lobes
    3 prs. paranotal lobes: Extensions of thoracic segments for gliding. Theory for development of insect wings
  35. Migrant Phenotype of monarch
    • Reproductive diapauseve
    • Suppress synthesis of juvenile hormonev
    • Live 7-9 months
  36. Deuterostomes
    • Echinodermata
    • Hemichordata
    • Xenoturbellida
    • Chordata
  37. Echinodermata
    • • Marine
    • • Bilaterally symmetric larvae
    • • Radially symmetric adults
    • • Metamorphosis
    • • Water vascular system
    • • Endoskeleton
  38. Urochordata tunicates
    • Adult is basically just pharyngeal gill slits, lives by filtration
    • They are covered by a tough leathery material call a tunic, giving them their name
  39. Salp
    Bud off clones in response to phytoplankton blooms
  40. Myxinoidea hagfishes
    • • Partial cranium
    • • Jawless
    • • Notochord persists
    • • Four pairs of sensorytentacles
  41. Did anyone else take notes from the slide about the paired fins and teeth?
  42. Chondrichthyes
    • (sharks, rays, skates)
    • • 840 species
    • • Marine, freshwater
    • • Paired appendages
    • • Cartilaginous skeleton
    • • Lateral line system (sensory)
    • • Internal fertilization (claspers)
  43. Shark skin is
    homologus to teeth
  44. Actinopterygii
    • (ray-finned fishes)
    • • 24,000 species• Marine, freshwater• Bony skeleton• Lateral line system• Swim bladder• Operculum
    • rays: cartilaginous or bony rods thatsupport the fins
  45. The terrestrial challenge
    • • Supporting body weight
    • • Movement
    • • Exchange of respiratory gases
    • • Preventing desiccation
    • • Reproduction
  46. Problem respitation
    • Soultion lungs
    • Gas exchange transferred fromgills to lungs, which evolvedfrom the swim bladder in rayfinnedfishes.
  47. Problem gravity
    • SOLUTION LIMBS & MODIFIED VERTEBRAE Limbs evolved from sturdy finsof lobe-finned fishes
    • Modified vertebrae transmit body weight through limbs to the ground
  48. Germ layers
    • Endo-The inner layer, digestive tube
    • Meso-middle layer, muscles,
    • additional layers
    • Ecto- inner layer, digestive tube
  49. Cleavage
    - series of rapid mitotic cell division that produces smaller cells and transforms a zygote into a multicellular blastula, or blastopore in animals
  50. Blastula-
    • vertebrate development, a hollow ball
    • of cells (blastomerecells) that is formed by cleavage of a zygote and immediately undergoes gastrulation
  51. Blastopore-
    small opening (pore) in the surface of an early vertebrate embryo, through which cells move during gastrulation
  52. Deuterostomes-
    anus develops before the mouth, pockets of mesoderm pinch off to form coelom
  53. Protostomes-
    the mouth develops before the anus, and blocks of mesoderm hollow out to form the coelom
  54. What clade in Animalia is the sister taxon to the remaining animals?
  55. Compare the two clades above RE similarities and differences.
    o Sister taxon relationship betweenchoanoflagellates & animalso 1. Morphology: collar cells ofspongeso 2. More morphology: collar cells inother animalso 3. DNA sequence data; cell signaling& adhesion geneso However, charnoflagellates areunicellular or colonial and sponges are multicullular
  56. List the major groups within the Reptilia?
    What synapomorphy unites them all?
    • Aves
    • Testudinia
    • Crocodila
    • Lepidosaura
    • Synapomorphy- scales with hard keratin

  57. Which of the following cell type in the Porifera possesses a flagellum?
  58. The motile stage of a typical cnidarian life cycle is known as a
  59. Neurons arise from which germ layer?
  60. Recent evidence demonstrates that some cnidarians are actually triploblastic
  61. Name the clade of triploblastic animals in which the blastopore becomes the mouth and in which several major lineages have a larva with a band of cilia around its circumference.
  62. Genes that produce proteins responsible for _____ constitute a synapomorphy for choanoflagellates and animals.
    cell signaling
  63. Which of the following characters or conditions distinguish the Ctenophora from Cnidaria?
  64. The symbiotic protists found in many corals are
  65. Which of the two cindarians had you rather have sting you?
    Portuguese man-of-war
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Biology Test 4 classes and such
2012-04-23 14:30:07
Biology Test classes organisms

Various organisms classified for Biology Test 4
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