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Biology starts with snails from L 25
A shell of calcium carbonate is laid down in layers by
lack a shell, nickked gills
bright colors on nudibranch are
aposematism, warning coloration advertising noxious qualities
Class Bivalvia,clams, scallops, etc.
foot is altered for digging, mantle is altered to allow water to flow in and out
Bivalves are ------------ feeders
(squid, nautilus, octopuses)
Cephalopoda-molluscan “foot” modified to form tentacles, most useful in pray capture
also have great eyesight
squids and octopi also have great---------------. How do they do this?
- color change abilities
- millions of chromatophores contract to contract pigments, causing color change
- complex nervous system
Molting (ecdysis) shedding an exoskeleton or cuticle to accommodate growth
- • Marine, freshwater, terrestrial, parasitic
- • Range in size from < 1mm to 9 m
- • Undergo four molts of their cuticle
- • Pseudoceolomate
coelom lies between mesoderm & endoderm as opposed to Coelomate:coelom lies withinthe mesoderm
Nematoda Significance of pseudocoloem in
- Muscles contract around fluid filled
- cavity expel water, allowing movement
- important model organism for embryonic development
- 959 somatic cells
causes the disease trichinosis
- • > 1,000,000 described species
- • Marine, freshwater, terrestrial
- • Segmentation
- • Exoskeleton (made of chitin & protein)
- • Jointed appendages
Majority of Arthropoda are
Trilobites were hit hard by ------- and went extinct in
Devonian mass extinction
Permian mass extinction
What were the first animals to make the transition from water to land?
Oldest known animal to have lived on land
- Two pairs of legs per segment
- Many millipedes emit poisonous secretionsor hydrogen cyanide as defense
- Millipedes and capuchin monkeys
- One pair of legs per segment
- “Fangs” = appendages of the first trunk segment
(spiders, ticks, mites, horseshoecrabs, daddy longlegs, scorpions)
pair of modified appendages used for feeding
(Proteins)1. High tensile strength2. Light weight3. Elastic
dispersal mechanism for spiders
- All spiders (except a single family) have venomglands
- Mixture of neurotoxic polypeptides, proteolyticenzymes, biogenic amines
- Only 20–30 of 30,000+ species are harmful to man
- Freshwater, terrestrial, few saltwater
- Major segmentation: head, thorax, abdomen
- Ventral nerve cord
- Open circulatory system
- Two pairs of wings
Insect compound eye is made of
thousands of omatidium, which are all technically functional eyes and like a pixal on a computer screen come together to make an image to the insect
Insects have a ------------ circulatory system with -----------
open circulatory system with hemolymph
An abrupt, substantial change inmorphology from one developmentalstage to another in an animal’s life cycle
one stage of larval development passes into another. The last one is bigger that the previous one but there does not seem to be marked morphological change. Larva- instars- nymphs- adult. Cockroach is an example.
In complete metamorphosis one stage differs markedly from the other, for example, larva is very much different from the shape of pupa and the adult is very much different from the pupa.
3 prs. paranotal lobes: Extensions of thoracic segments for gliding. Theory for development of insect wings
Migrant Phenotype of monarch
- Reproductive diapauseve
- Suppress synthesis of juvenile hormonev
- Live 7-9 months
- • Marine
- • Bilaterally symmetric larvae
- • Radially symmetric adults
- • Metamorphosis
- • Water vascular system
- • Endoskeleton
- Adult is basically just pharyngeal gill slits, lives by filtration
- They are covered by a tough leathery material call a tunic, giving them their name
Bud off clones in response to phytoplankton blooms
- • Partial cranium
- • Jawless
- • Notochord persists
- • Four pairs of sensorytentacles
Did anyone else take notes from the slide about the paired fins and teeth?
- (sharks, rays, skates)
- • 840 species
- • Marine, freshwater
- • Paired appendages
- • Cartilaginous skeleton
- • Lateral line system (sensory)
- • Internal fertilization (claspers)
Shark skin is
homologus to teeth
- (ray-finned fishes)
- • 24,000 species• Marine, freshwater• Bony skeleton• Lateral line system• Swim bladder• Operculum
- rays: cartilaginous or bony rods thatsupport the fins
The terrestrial challenge
- • Supporting body weight
- • Movement
- • Exchange of respiratory gases
- • Preventing desiccation
- • Reproduction
- Soultion lungs
- Gas exchange transferred fromgills to lungs, which evolvedfrom the swim bladder in rayfinnedfishes.
- SOLUTION LIMBS & MODIFIED VERTEBRAE Limbs evolved from sturdy finsof lobe-finned fishes
- Modified vertebrae transmit body weight through limbs to the ground
- Endo-The inner layer, digestive tube
- Meso-middle layer, muscles,
- additional layers
- Ecto- inner layer, digestive tube
- series of rapid mitotic cell division that produces smaller cells and transforms a zygote into a multicellular blastula, or blastopore in animals
- vertebrate development, a hollow ball
- of cells (blastomerecells) that is formed by cleavage of a zygote and immediately undergoes gastrulation
small opening (pore) in the surface of an early vertebrate embryo, through which cells move during gastrulation
anus develops before the mouth, pockets of mesoderm pinch off to form coelom
the mouth develops before the anus, and blocks of mesoderm hollow out to form the coelom
What clade in Animalia is the sister taxon to the remaining animals?
Compare the two clades above RE similarities and differences.
o Sister taxon relationship betweenchoanoflagellates & animalso 1. Morphology: collar cells ofspongeso 2. More morphology: collar cells inother animalso 3. DNA sequence data; cell signaling& adhesion geneso However, charnoflagellates areunicellular or colonial and sponges are multicullular
List the major groups within the Reptilia?
What synapomorphy unites them all?
- Synapomorphy- scales with hard keratin
Which of the following cell type in the Porifera possesses a flagellum?
The motile stage of a typical cnidarian life cycle is known as a
Neurons arise from which germ layer?
Recent evidence demonstrates that some cnidarians are actually triploblastic
Name the clade of triploblastic animals in which the blastopore becomes the mouth and in which several major lineages have a larva with a band of cilia around its circumference.
Genes that produce proteins responsible for _____ constitute a synapomorphy for choanoflagellates and animals.
Which of the following characters or conditions distinguish the Ctenophora from Cnidaria?
The symbiotic protists found in many corals are
Which of the two cindarians had you rather have sting you?