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ORGANS-- primary structures that comprise the skeletal system are:
BONES-- OSSEOUS TISSUE
*Formed from a gradual process beginning before bith called Ossification.
*Fetal skeleton is formed from CARTILAGE
*Flexible tissue is replace by OSTEOBLASTS
*ADULT BONES- the OSTEOBLASTS have mature into OSTEOCYTES
Several different types of bones are found throughout the body and fall into 4 categories based on their shape:
*LONG BONES- EX. Femur and Humerus
*SHORT BONES- EX.Carpals and Tarsals
*IRRUGULAR BONES- Shapes are irrugular EX. VERTEBREA.
*FLAT BONES- Plate shapes EX. Pelvis, Sternum, and Scapulae
*Divided into axial (a straight line about which an object rotates)Skeleton (bone colored) and appendicular (pertaining to the limbs) Skeleton (blue Colored).
The AXIAL SKELETON -includes the bones of the head, neck spine, chest and trunk of the body.
-BONES OF THE AXIAL SKELETON INCLUDE:
*CERVICAL VERTEBRAE- form the skeletal framework of the neck.
*PALATINE BONE-situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid
*ETHMOID BONE- forms most of teh bony area between the nasal cavity and parts of the orbits of the eyes
*SACRUM- five sacral vertebrae, which are fused into a single bone in the adult
*OCCIPITAL BONE- forms the back and base of the skull
*CRANIUM- connected to muscles to provide head movement, chewing motions, and facial expressions
*RIB CAGE- thorax including the heart and lungs, are enclosed and protected by bony rib cage
*FRONTAL BONE- forms the anterior portion of the skull (forehead)and the roof of the bony bone
*COCCYX- the tail of the vertebral column consists of four or five fragmented fused vertebrae
*PARIETAL BONE- is situated on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone
*STERNUM-A long flat bone in most vertebrates that is situated along the ventral midline of the thorax and articulates with the ribs
- *SPHENOID BONE- located at the middle part of the based of the skull, forms central wedge that joins with all ohter cranial bones, including holding them together
- *INTERVERTEBRAL DISC- which are composed of fibrocartilaginous susbstance with a gelatinous mass in the center(nucleus pulposus)
- *LUMBAR VERTEBRAE- situated in the lower back area and carry most of the weight of the torso
- *VOMER BONE- single thin bone that forms the lower parts of the nasal septum
- *ZYGOMATIC BONE- located on the side of the face below the eyes and form the higher portion of the cheeks below and the sides of the eyes
- *HYOID BONE-shaped like a horseshoe, and is suspended from the tips of the styloid
- processes of the temporal bones by the stylohyoid ligaments
- *LACRIMAL BONE- smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit
- *VERTEBRAL COLUMN- supports the body and provides protective bony canal for spinal cord
- *MAXILLA- paired upper jawbones are fused in the midline by a suture
- *TEMPORAL BONE- one on each side of the skull, form part of the lower cranium
- *THORACIC VERTEBRAE- support the chest and serve as a point of articulation for the ribs
- *MANDIBLE-(lower jaw bone) are joined together by sutures and are immovable
- *NASAL BONE- lie side-by-side and are fused medially, forming the shape and the bridge of the nose
THESE ARE THE BONES FOR OUR APPENDAGES OR LIMBS AND ALONG WITH THE MUSCLES ATTACHED TO THEM, THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE BODY MOVEMENT.
-BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
Bones of the UPPER EXTREMITY ARE: the Humerus, ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, and phalanges.
-Bones of the LOWER EXTREMITY ARE: the Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals and phalanges.
- UPPER EXTREMITY
- Humerus-the longest and largest bone of the upper extremity
- Ulna-is a long bone, prismatic in form, placed at the medial side of the forearm, parallel with the radius
- Radius-is situated on the lateral side of the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size
- Carpals-wrist bones
- Scapula- forms the posterior part of the shoulder girdle
- Clavicle-forms the anterior portion of the shoulder girdle
- LOWER EXTREMITY
- Femur-the longest and strongest bone in the skeleton
- Patella- is a flat, triangular bone, situated on the front of the knee-joint
- Tibia-is situated at the medial side of the leg, and, excepting the femur, is the longest bone of the skeleton
- Fibula-is placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below
- Tarsals-(ankle bones) resemble metacarpals (wrist bones) in Structure
- Metatarsals-consists of five bones which are numbered
- from the medial side---wedge-shaped, articulating proximally with the tarsal bones, and by its sides with the contiguous metatarsal bones
- phalanges- (toes)
- MIDDLE EXTREMITYPelvic girdle-is a bony ring, interposed between the movable vertebræ of the vertebral column
- Pubis -extends medialward and downward from the acetabulum and articulates in the middle line with the bone of the opposite side
- Innominate (hip) bone- is a large, flattened, irregularly shaped bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below
- Ilium-is the superior broad and expanded portion which extends upward from the acetabulum
- Ischium-is the lowest and strongest portion of the bone; it proceeds downward from the acetabulum
- Pectoral girdle-
- lower Extremities-of the ulna is small, and presents two eminences; the lateral and larger is a rounded, articular eminence, termed the head of the ulna
- Os coxae-
- Upper extremities-presents two curved processes, the olecranon and the coronoid process
JOINTS - FORMED WHEN 2 OR MORE BONES MEET, ALSO KNOWN AS AN ARTICULATION
3 TYPES OF JOINTS BASED ON MOVEMENT ALLOWED BETWEEN THE BONES:
- SYNOVIAL JOINTS- FREELY MOVING EX. BALL AND SOCKET JOINTS FOUND AT THE HIP AND SHOULDER.
- CARTILAGIOUS JOINTS- SLIGHT MOVEMENT BUT HOLD BONES FIRMLY IN PLACE BY A PIECE OF SOLID CARTILAGE EX. PUBIC SYMPHYSIS
- FIBROUS JOINTS- ALLOW ALMOST NO MOVEMENT EX. SUTURES OF THE SKULL (FUSE INTO SOLOD BONE)
- PROVIDE A SKELETAL FRAMEWORK TO PROTEST THE BODY
- STORE CALCIUM AND OTHER MINERALS
- PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS WITHIN BONE MARROW