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2012-04-04 15:12:19

key terms from chapter eleven - Nickels, W.G., 2010. Understanding Business. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc: New York. ed9, p. 282-315.
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  1. Define: human resource management (HRM)
    the process of determining human resource needs and then recruiting, selecting, development, motivating, evaluating, compensating, and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals (p. 284)
  2. Define: affirmative action
    employment activities designed to "right past wrongs" by increasing opportunities for minorities and women (p. 288)
  3. Define: reverse discrimination
    discrimination against whites or males in hiring or promoting (p. 289)
  4. Define: job analysis
    a study of what employees do who hold various job titles (p. 290)
  5. Define: job description
    a summary of the objectives of a job, the type of work to be done, the responsibilities and duties, the working conditions, and the relationship of the job to other functions (p. 291)
  6. Define: job specifications
    a written summary of the minimum qualifications required of workers to do a particular job (p. 291)
  7. Define: recruitment
    the set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of the right employees at the right time (p. 292)
  8. Define: selection
    the process of gathering information and deciding who should be hired, under legal guidelines, to serve the individual and the organization (p. 293)
  9. Define: contingent workers
    employees that include part-time workers, temporary workers, seasonal workers, independent contractors, interns, and co-op students (p. 296)
  10. Define: training and development
    all attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee's ability to perform. Training focuses on short-time skills, development on long-term abilites (p. 297)
  11. Define: orientation
    the activity that introduces new employees to the organization; to fellow employees; to their immediate supervisors; and to the policies, practices, and objectives of the firm (p. 298)
  12. Define: on-the-job training
    training at the workplace that lets the employee learn by doing or by watching others for a while and then imitating them (p. 298)
  13. Define: apprentice programs
    training programs during which a learner works alongside an experienced employee to master the skills and procedures of a craft (p. 298)
  14. Define: off-the-job training
    internal or external training programs away from the workplace that develop any of a variety of skills of foster personal development (p. 299)
  15. Define: online training
    training programs in which employees complete classes via the Internet (p. 299)
  16. Define: vestibule training
    training done in schools where employees are taught on equipment similar to that used on the job (p. 299)
  17. Define: job simulation
    the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job (p. 299)
  18. Define: management development
    the process of training and educating employees to become good managers, and then monitoring the progress of their managerial skills over time (p. 300)
  19. Define: networking
    the process of establishing and maintaining contacts with key managers in and outside the organization and using those contacts to weave strong relationships that serve as informal development systems (p. 300)
  20. Define: mentor
    an experienced employee who supervises, coaches, and guides lower-level employees by introducing them to the right people and generally being their organizational sponsor (p. 300)
  21. Define: performance appraisal
    an evaluation that measures employee performance against established standards in order to make decisions about promotions, compensation, training, or termination (p. 301)
  22. Define: fringe benefits
    benefits such as sick-leave pay,vacation pay, pension plans, and health plans that represent additional compensation beyond base wages (p. 305)
  23. Define: cafeteria-style fringe benefits
    fringe benefits plan that allows employees to choose the benefits they want up to a certain dollar amount (p. 306)
  24. Define: flextime plan
    work schedule that gives employees some freedom to choose when to work, as long as they work the required number of hours (p. 306)
  25. Define: core time
    in a flextime plan, the period when all employees are expected to be at their job stations (p. 306)
  26. Define: compressed workweek
    work schedule that allows an employees that allows an employee to work a full number of hours per week but in fewer days (p. 307)
  27. Define: job sharing
    an arrangement whereby two part-time employees share ine full-time job (p. 308)