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2012-04-04 15:13:08

key terms from chapter twelve - Nickels, W.G., 2010. Understanding Business. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc: New York. ed9, p. 315-343.
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  1. Define: union
    an employee organization whose main goal is representing its members in employee-management negotiation of job-related issues (p. 318)
  2. Define: craft union
    an organization of skilled specialists in a particular craft or trade (p. 319)
  3. Define: Knights of Labor
    the first national labor union; formed in 1869 (p. 320)
  4. Define: American Federation of Labor (AFL)
    an organization of craft unions that championed fundamental labor issues; founded in 1886 (p. 320)
  5. Define: industrial unions
    labor organizations of unskilled and semiskilled workers in mass-production industries such as automobiles and mining (p. 320)
  6. Define: Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
    union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955 (p. 320)
  7. Define: yellow-dog contract
    a type of contract that required employees to agree as a condition of employment not to join a union; prohibited by the Norris-LaGuardia Act in 1932 (p. 320)
  8. Define: collective bargaining
    the process whereby union and management representatives form a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers (p. 321)
  9. Define: certification
    formal process whereby a union is recognized by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) as the bargaining agent for a group of employees (p. 321)
  10. Define: decertification
    the process by which workers take away a union's right to represent them (p. 321)
  11. Define: negotiated labor-management agreement (labor contract)
    agreement that sets the tone and clarifies the terms under which management and labor agree to function over a period of time (p. 323)
  12. Define: union security clause
    provision in a negotiated labor-management agreement that stipulates that employees who benefit from a union must either officially join or at least pay dues to the union (p. 323)
  13. Define: closed shop agreement
    clause in a labor-management agreement that specified workers had to be members of a union before being hired (was outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947) (p. 323)
  14. Define: union shop agreement
    clause in a labor-management agreement that says workers do not have to be members of a union to be hired, but must agree to join the union within a prescribed period (p. 324)
  15. Define: agency shop agreement
    clause in a labor-management agreement that says employers may hire nonunion workers; employees are not required to join the union but must pay a union fee (p. 324)
  16. Define: right-to-work laws
    legislation that gives workers the right, under an open shop, to join or not join a union if it is present (p. 324)
  17. Define: open shop agreement
    agreement in right-to-work state that gives workers the option to join or not join a union, if one exists in their workplace (p. 324)
  18. Define: grievance
    a charge by employees that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement (p. 325)
  19. Define: shop stewards
    union officials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interests on a daily basis (p. 326)
  20. Define: bargaining zone
    the range of options between the initial and final offer that each party will consider before negotiations dissolve or reach an impasse (p. 326)
  21. Define: mediation
    the use of a third party, called a mediator, who encourages both sides in a dispute to continue negotiating and often makes suggestions for resolving the dispute (p. 326)
  22. Define: arbitration
    the agreement to bring in an impartial third party (a single arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators) to render a binding decision in a labor dispute (p. 327)
  23. Define: strike
    a union strategy in which workers refuse to go to work; the purpose is to further workers' objectives after an impasse in collective bargaining (p. 327)
  24. Define: cooling-off period
    when workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations (p. 328)
  25. Define: primary boycott
    when a union encourages both its members and the general public not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute (p. 328)
  26. Define: secondary boycott
    an attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a firm that is the subject of a primary boycott; prohibited by the Taft-Hartley Act (p. 329)
  27. Define: lockout
    an attempt by management to put pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business (p. 329)
  28. Define: injunction
    a court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something (p. 329)
  29. Define: strikebreakers
    workers hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the labor dispute is resolved (p. 329)
  30. Define: givebacks
    concessions made by union members to management; gains from labor negotiations are given back to management to help employers remain competitive and thereby save jobs (p. 329)
  31. Define: sexual harassment
    unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other conduct (verbal or physical) of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment (p. 335)