Cognition, Learning, and Intelligence

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  1. Accommondation
    Piaget's term for adjusting exploratory actions in response to an object's novel characteristics
  2. Allocentric Framework
    Spatial orientation that is based on external cues in the environment
  3. A-Not-B Error
    Piaget's term for the tendency, first seen around 8 months of age, for infants to search for objects at locations from which they previously successfully retrieved objects, even thought they saw the object being hidden at a different location
  4. Arbitrary Relations
    Steps in a sequence that may be performed in any order because they are not logically or practically linked
  5. Assimilation
    Piaget's term for employing previously used actions to explore an object
  6. Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)
    A measure that is used to assess infant intelligence through motor, mental, and behavior rating scales
  7. Categorization
    The ability to group aspects of the world according to shared attributes
  8. Coordination of Secondary Schemes
    Piaget's fourth substage of the sensorimotor period, in which infants perform two separate schemes in order to produce a desired outcome
  9. Deferred Imitation
    The ability to remember and repeat an action that was observed earlier, in the absence of a model for those actions
  10. Egocentric
    Piaget's term for infants' tendency to understand the world through their own sensory and motor acts
  11. Egocentric Framework
    Spatial orientation that is based on one's own body and physical actions
  12. Egocentric Speech
    Verbal behavior that is directed toward oneself rather others, with the purpose of enhancing concentration and performance during an activity
  13. Enabling Relations
    A logically or practically necessary order between steps in a sequence
  14. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
    Recordings of brain activity from a network of electrodes placed on the scalp's surface
  15. Explicit Memory
    Conscious awareness of specific information, such as evernts and facts
  16. Exploratory Play
    Play commonly seen in the first year of life, consisting of repetition of motor movements
  17. Functional Play
    Play observed beginning at 12 to 18 months of age that reflects children's understanding of objects' intended uses
  18. Functional-Relational Play
    Play observed beginning at 12 to 18 months of age that involves bringing together related objects
  19. Guided Participation
    Patterns of social interaction and structured activity during joint problem solving involving people with different levels of skills and knowledge
  20. Implicit Memory
    Unconscious learning, including conditioning and aspects of motor learning
  21. Infantile Amnesia
    The inability that most adults have to recall events that happened before they were about 3 years old
  22. Joint Attention
    Shared perceptual exploration with another person
  23. Long-Term Memory
    Information that is stored and available to be retrieved repeatedly over time
  24. Mental Combinations
    Piaget's sixth substage of the sensorimotor period, in which infants are able to think about their actions and select schemes in order to achieve a desired outcome
  25. Mental Representation
    The ability to remember and think about ojects and events, even when those objects and events are not physically present
  26. Object Permanence
    Piaget's term for infants' gradually developing understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not in sensory or motor contact with them
  27. Play
    Activity that is intrinsically motivated, focused on means rather than ends, different from purely exploratory behavior, nonliteral, and free from externally applied rules
  28. Pretend/Symbolic Play
    Play that emerges after 12 months of age, in which children behave in a nonliteral way
  29. Primary Circular Reactions
    Piaget's second substage of the sensorimotor period, in which sensory and motor schemes are activated by chance
  30. Recall Memory
    The ability to remember a previously presented stimulus or event in the absence of ongoing perceptual support
  31. Recognition Memory
    The ability to remember a previously presented stimulus or event when it is presented at a later time
  32. Reflex Schemes
    Piaget's first substage of the sensorimotor period, in which infants respond to the world with a limited set of preadapted behaviors
  33. Relational Play
    Play before the age 12 months that involves unrelated objects
  34. Representational Insight
    Awareness of the relation between a space and a symbol for that space
  35. Scaffolding
    The process through which more capable individuals structure tasks to boost less capable individuals' performance
  36. Schemes
    Piaget's term for actions used to explore and interact with the physical environment
  37. Secondary Circular Reactions
    Piaget's third substage of the sensorimotor period, in which infants repeat schemes in order to achieve specific outcome
  38. Sensorimotor Intelligence
    Piaget's first stage of cognitive development, from birth to 24 months of age
  39. Short-Term Memory
    A limited storage system that holds information for only a few seconds of the information is not actively rehearsed
  40. Sociocultural Contexts
    Settings in which children spend time, including home, child care, and school
  41. Sociodramatic Play
    Cooperative pretend play emerging between 2 and 3 years of age, in which children use verbal skills to coordinate their own actions with those of other children as part of a large play theme
  42. Tertiary Circular Reactions
    Piaget's fifth substage of the sensorimotor period, in which infants try different schemes to discover the effects of those actions
  43. Theory of Mind
    A cognitive achievement that emerges around the age of 3 years, enabling children to understand others' feelings and beliefs
  44. Violation-of-Expectation Procedure
    A procedure in which infants are shown possible and impossible events in order to test their understanding of physical phenomena and object properties
  45. Zone of Proximal Development
    Vygotsky's term for the distance between a child's ability to solve a problem alone and how much better the child can solve the problem when guided or assisted by a more capable individual
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Cognition, Learning, and Intelligence
2012-04-05 05:52:00
Cognition Learning Intelligence

Cognition, Learning, and Intelligence 311
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