Archaeology Exam

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  1. Diachronic
    Cultural and social changes over time
  2. Prehistoric
    Concerned with socieites without the use of writing and textual evidence
  3. Protohistoric
    Textual evidence available to complement material record (not always in agreement)
  4. Historic
    Multiple texts exist to document societies and events
  5. Ethnoarchaeology
    Study of living cultures for archaeological reasons
  6. Experimental archaeology
    Replication of tools, buildings, or activities to inform interpretations of material record
  7. Archaeological Record
    Material remains of human past and their physical contexts located in sites
  8. Culture
    All aspects of human adaptation and beliefs. Transmitted through learning.
  9. Clifford Geertz Theory
    Human evolution and culture are interwined. Human nature is dependent on culture.
  10. Pleistocene Epoch
    • Ice Age
    • 2.6 mya to 10,000 BP
    • Continental plates: largely in place
    • Repeated glacial cycles
  11. Paleolithic Period
    • Old Stone Age
    • 99% of human history
    • Variety of tools- stone, bone, and wood
    • Increading sophistication over time
  12. Middle Pleistocene Hominins
    • most are H. heidelbergensis
    • Transition period into modern humans and Neanderthals
  13. Kabwe (Broken Hill) Site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Zambia
    • Period: Middle Pleistocene
    • Found: Complete cranium, elements of several individuals with older (erectus) and modern traits
  14. Bodo site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Ethopia
    • Period: Middle Pleistocene
    • Found: Nearly complete cranium, pattern of cut marks (defleshing by other hominins- reason unknown). Earliest case of bone processing of hominins by other hominins
  15. Steinheim site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Germany
    • Period: Middle Pleistocene
    • Found: craium with retention of certain H. erectus traits mixed with new traits (increased cranial capacity, reduced tooth size)
  16. Atapuerca Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Spain
    • Period: Middle Pleistocene
    • Found: "Pit of bones"- 28 individuals + 4000 fossil fragments. Early Neandertal-like features
  17. Dali site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: China
    • Period: Middle Pleistocene
    • Found: cranium displays with erectus and sapiens traits
  18. paleospecies
    a group of similar fossils whose range of morphological variation does not exceed the range of variation of a closely related living species
  19. Mousterian tool tradition
    Usually associated with Neanderthals
  20. admixture
  21. Vindija Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Croatia
    • Period: Middle Pleistocene
    • Found: Neanderthal bones
  22. How much Neanderthal DNA is in moder Eurasians? How is this possible?
    between 1 and 4 percent

    explained by admixture between early modern humans and Neanderthals
  23. Denisova Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Altai Mountain- Siberia, Russia
    • Period: Late Pleistocene
    • Found: Denisovan bone fragments
  24. What did we get from Neanderthals and Denisovans?
    • Disease-fighting genes
    • ex. Human leukocyte antigens
  25. Multiregional/Gene Flow hypothesis
    Modern humans have ancestors in archaic human populations (like Neanderthals) from Africa, Europe, and Asia
  26. Out of Africa Hypothesis
    All modern humans origingated from a small population in Africa
  27. "Upper Paleolithic Revolution"
    • Late Stone Age
    • 40,000-10,000 BP
    • More clothing, personal ornaments, specialized hunting
    • Burials include ornaments, tools, red ocher
  28. Sunghir site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Russia
    • Period: Upper Paleolithic
    • Found: adults and adolescents with grave goods (beaded clothing, red ocher, ivory beads, long spears
  29. Gravettian Culture
    • Big-game hunting
    • Small pointed blades (stone)
  30. Burin
    Tool used in crafting and carving
  31. Venus
    Female figurines. Purpose unknown
  32. Altamira Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Spain
    • Period: Upper Paleolithic
    • Found: Polychrome paintings, paleolithic artifacts on floor
  33. Lascaux Caves
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: France
    • Period: Upper Paleolithic
    • Found: 2000 figures (animals, human figures, abstract signs)
  34. Chauvet Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: France
    • Period: Upper Paleolithic
    • Found: Hundreds of animal paintings, prey and predators
  35. Katanda site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Period: Middle Paleolithic
    • Found: Bone tools
  36. Blombos Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: South Africa
    • Period: Middle Paleolithic
    • Found: Bone tools, shell beads, engraved red ocher fragments
  37. Sidubu Cave
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: South Africa
    • Period: Middle Paleolithic
    • Found: Small bone points (transition from larger spear points to bow and arrow?)
  38. Significant areas of Late Pleistocene Southeast Asia and Australia?
    Sunda and Sahul
  39. Wallace Line
    Ecozone boundary between Sunda and Sahul (Asia and Australia)
  40. Southern Migration Route
    possible routh of population for Asia/the Pacific
  41. Oldest Australian sites lie near_____?
    Lake Mungo
  42. Liang Bua cave site
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Flores, eastern Indonesia
    • Period: Late Pleistocene (?)
    • Found: remains of 9 very small individuals (Homo floresiensis?)
  43. Rapa Nui
    What period?
    What was found?
    • Where: Easter Island
    • When: Late Pleistocene (?)
    • Found: moai (monumental statues)
  44. Peopling of the Americas: Clovis First model
    • People entered by Bering Land Bridge (Beringia linked Siberia to Alaska)
    • Yana RHS site, Siberia
    • Clovis point used for Megafauna
  45. Clovis sites
    • Monte Verde
    • Meadowcroft Rockshelter
    • Cactus Hill
  46. Peopling of the Americas: Atlantic Maritime model
    • Marine adapted people from Europe canoed along the Atlantic ice-edge corridor
    • Solutrean similarities to Colvis technology
  47. Peopling of the Americas: Pacific Maritime model
    Maritime adapted people canoed along the coast from Siberia to the Americas
  48. Ache
    Modern hunter-gatherers in Paraguay
  49. Hadzabe
    Modern hunter-gatherer of Tanzania
  50. Inuit
    Modern hunter-gatherers of northern Canada
  51. Holocene Hunter Gatherers
    Americas: ______ and _____
    Europe: ________
    W. Asia: ________
    • Americas: Paleo-Indian and Archaic
    • Europe: Mesolithic
    • W. Asia: Epipleolithic
  52. See notes from the movie
    Do it
  53. Nubia
    Region along the nile rivier (Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt)
  54. "Neolithic Revolution"
    Characterized by decreased reliance on wild species and increased reliance on domesticates
  55. Extensive lifeway
    utilizing resources across a more extensive piece of land (temporary homes)
  56. Intensive living
    localized investment. Sedentary.
  57. Oasis hypothesis for domestication
    clustering of people, animals, and plants near one water source. domestication occurs over time. hypothesis does not have archaeological support
  58. Population Pressure hypothesis for domestication
    Farming is a last resort. Started b/c of population needs
  59. Cultural reasons for agriculture
    • Ritual Feasting
    • Luxury items
  60. Fertile Crescent
    • Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
    • Center of domestication
  61. Ecosystem Engineering
    Modification of environments in order to bring organisms under human control
  62. Natufian Culture
    • Levant area (NE Africa)
    • Specialized hunter-gatherer settlements
    • Semi-sedentary
  63. Abu Hureyra
    • Where: Syria
    • Group: Natufians
    • Found: plant gathering, gazelle hunting, pit dwellings, domestic cattle, sheep, goat, and pigs
  64. Catal Hoyuk
    • Where: first city of central Turkey?
    • Group: Natufians
    • Found: Ritual and trade center (Obsidian volcanic glass trade) elaborate grave goods
  65. See pg 19 for New World Agriculture
    Do it.
  66. indicators of urbanism/states
    • 1. Highly populous
    • 2. Politically centralized
    • 3. Socially stratified/differentiated
    • 4. Monumental architecture
    • 5. Urbanism
  67. Jericho
    • 11000 BP
    • Roots of urbanism
    • walls built
  68. Uurk
    • Southern Iraq
    • Sumerian civilization
    • Considered to be the earilest true city
  69. Hierakonpolis
    • Egyptian civilization
    • Narmet Plette found- showed how power was consolidated
  70. Harappa
    • Pakistan
    • Indus Valley region
    • Elaborate Middle Class society (no monuments)
  71. Shang
    • First documented state of China
    • Captial- Anyang
  72. Angkor Kingdom
    • holy city
    • center of Khmer culture
    • Largest preindustrial city
    • Stratified society
  73. Great Zimbabwe
    • Powerful, pre-colonial state
    • Wealth from long-distance trade
  74. Co Loa site
    • Old World
    • Early Vietnamese capital?
  75. Warfare
    Organized violence between politically autonomous groups or societies
  76. Tollense Valley
    • Where: Germany
    • Found: Weapons, skeletal remains w/ skulls showing blunt force trauma
Card Set
Archaeology Exam
Anthro 100
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