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  1. Normal bicarbonate (HCO3) levels are?
    21-28 mEq/L
  2. What is the function of bicarbonate (HCO3) ?
    To maintain normal pH levels in blood and body fluids.
  3. What are some causes of abnormal bicarbonate (HCO3) levels?
    Impaired respiratory, kidney, or metabolic function.
  4. What are normal pH levels?
  5. What is a role of chloride in the body?
    To maintain serum osmolarity and body water balance.
  6. What are normal serum chloride levels?
    Adult: 97-107 mEq/L
  7. Hypercholridemia results from?
    excessive loss of bicarbonate fluids and electrolytes from the lower intestine, renal tubular acidosis, and mineralcorticoid deficiency. (During metabolic acidosis).
  8. What are normal serum potassium levels?
    3.5-5.1 mEq/L
  9. What are causes of hyperkalemia?
    Most commonly occurs with renal disease.
  10. What are causes of hypokalemia?
    Diuretic therapy and fluid losses from GI, skin or kidneys.
  11. How does a nurse respond to critical potassium levels?
    Notify physician. The patient is in a life-threatening situation, with danger of dysrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and death.
  12. What does the nurse assess when a patient has critial potassium levels?
    Hyper: muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ascending paralysis, respiratory arrest, slow irregular heart beat.

    Hypo: weakness, cramps, tetany, anorexia, nausea, tachy/bradycardia, premature atrial and ventricular contractions.
  13. What are normal serum sodium levels?
    136-145 mEq/L
  14. Sodium retention or excessive loss of water can cause ____?
  15. Excessive water retention or excessive sodium loss can cause ____?
  16. What happens to patient with critical Sodium levels?
    Significant brain and nervous system dysfunction. Confusion and lethargy.
  17. What are normal Serum calcium levels?
    Adult: 8.6- 10.0 mg/dL
  18. Hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are common causes of a life threatening complication, ____?
  19. Decreased levels of calcium or _____ cause neuromuscular hyperactivity.
  20. Laryngeal stridor, tetany, convulsions, hypotension, and decreased myocardial contractility are manifestations of ____ a decrease in serum calcium.
  21. Polyuria, anorexia, nausea, and coma are manifestations that may occur with increased calcium is ____?
  22. What are normal serum magnesium levels?
    1.5-2.3 mg/dL
  23. Inadequate food intake can lead to ____?
  24. What is a common cause of hypermagnesemia?
    Advanced renal failure
  25. What are normal serum phosphate levels?
    Adult: 2.5-4.5 mg/dL
Card Set:
2012-04-05 04:06:09
electrolytes nursing

Review electrolyte normal values relevant to nursing
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