BIO

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switch2002
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145817
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BIO
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2012-04-11 21:48:31
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Facts for test #5
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  1. Herbivore:
    Heterotroph that consumes plants or algae
  2. Carnivore:
    Heterotroph that consumes other animals
  3. Omnivore:
    Heterotroph that consumes both plants and animals
  4. Detritivore (decomposer):
    Consume dead organic matter
  5. Undernourished / Undernourishment:
    Deficiency in total chemical energy (calories)
  6. Malnourished / Malnourishment:
    Deficiency in one or more essential nutrients
  7. Ingestion:
    Taking food into the body (eating)
  8. Suspension feeder:
    Filter food particles from water
  9. Deposit feeder:
    Sift organic particles from soil
  10. Substrate feeder:
    Live in or on the their food source
  11. Fluid feeder:
    Suck nutrients out of its host
  12. Bulk feeder:
    Eat relatively large pieces of food
  13. Digestion:
    Process of breaking down food into molecules small enough to absorb
  14. Absorption:
    Uptake of nutrients via body cells
  15. Elimination:
    Passage of undigested material out of the digestive tract
  16. Intracellular digestion:
    Food particles are engulfed by phagocytosis and digested w/in food vacuoles
  17. Extracellular digestion:
    The breakdown of food particles outside of cells
  18. Peristalsis:
    Involuntary muscle contractions that move food through digestive tract
  19. What are the four “nutritional requirements” of animals?
    • (1) Chemical (converted to ATP)
    • (2) Organic carbon
    • (3) Organic nitrogen
    • (4) essential nutrients
  20. What are the four classes of “essential nutrients” needed for human health?
    • (1) Fatty acids
    • (2) amino acids
    • (3) vitamins
    • (4) minerals
  21. What are the four main stages of food processing?
    • (1)Ingestion
    • (2) Digestion
    • (3) Absorption
    • (4) Elimination
  22. How do mammals carry out mechanical digestion?
    Salivary glands initiating breakdown of food (glucose polymers) Teeth - chew food into smaller particles .Tongue- shapes food into a bolus; provides help with swallowing
  23. How do mammals carry out chemical digestion?
    With gastric juice that consists of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin
  24. Why is it important for digestion to be compartmentalized within an organism’s body?
    So the body does not digest itself
  25. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? salivary glands:
    Enzymes begin to break food particles down
  26. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? teeth:
    Chew food into smaller pieces
  27. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? tongue:
    Shape food into ball (bolus) for easier swallowing
  28. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? pharynx:
    Allows food from the mouth to pass into the esophagus
  29. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? esophagus:
    Is a conduit for food from pharynx to stomach
  30. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? stomach:
    Stores food and secretes gastric acid
  31. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? gastric juices:
    Converts (digests) food into acid chyme
  32. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? small intestine:
    Major organ of digestion and absorption
  33. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? duodenum
    First portion of small intestine where acid chyme mixes w/digestive juices from pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and small intestine itself
  34. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? jejunum
    Absorptions of nutrients and water
  35. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? ileum:
    Absorptions of nutrients and water
  36. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? Villi & microvilli:
    Increase surface area of small intestine, aid in absorption
  37. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? pancreas:
    produces protein digesting enzymes –its solution is alkaline and neutralizes the acidic chyme
  38. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? liver:
    Creates bile that aids in digestion and absorption of fats
  39. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? Gall bladder:
    Stores bile that aids in digestion and absorption of fats
  40. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? large intestine
    Reabsorbs water
  41. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? colon
    Recovers water that has entered alimentary canal (digestive system)
  42. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? cecum:
    Aids in fermentation of plant materials
  43. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? rectum
    Storage
  44. What function(s) does each of the following play in vertebrate digestion? anus:
    Source for elimination of waste
  45. Open circulatory system:
    No distinction between blood and interstitial fluid (hemolymph), Hemolymph directly bathes the organs; one or more hearts (arthropods [insects, spiders], mollusks [squid, ocotpus])
  46. Closed circulatory system:
    Blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid. Branching system of vessels. More efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells one or more hearts (annelids[segmented worms, cephalopods [have tenticles], vertebrates)
  47. Hemolymph:
    Mixture of blood and interstitial fluid (extracellular, no vassals. used in open circulatary system)
  48. Interstitial fluid:
    Fluid surrounding cells in body tissues, provides path for nutrients gases and wastes
  49. Cardiovascular system:
    Circulatory system of vertebrates
  50. Single circulation:
    One circuit of blood flow (fishes, sharks)
  51. Double circulation:
    Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart
  52. Pulmonary circuit (of the vertebrate circulatory system):
    Oxygen poor blood flows through the pulmonary circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs
  53. Pulmocutaneous circuit (of the vertebrate circulatory system):
    Oxygen-poor blood flows through a pulmocutaneous circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs and skin
  54. Systemic circuit (of the vertebrate circulatory system):
    Oxygen-rich blood delivers oxygen through the systemic circuit
  55. Hemocyanin:
    Respiratory pigments which are proteins that transport oxygen in arthropods
  56. Hemoglobin:
    Respiratory pigments which are proteins that transport oxygen in most vertebrates and some invertebrates
  57. Partial pressure (of a gas):
    The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases
  58. What are the three basic components of a circulatory system (open or closed)?
    (1) circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph) (2) set of interconnecting tubes (blood vessels) (3) muscular pump (the heart)
  59. Which groups of organisms typically have an open circulatory system?
    Arthropods(invertebrates, spiders, insects ), most Mollusks (muscles, clams)
  60. Which groups of organisms typically have a closed circulatory system?
    Annelids (segmented worms), Cephalopods (have tentacles ex. squid octopus) , Vertebrates
  61. Give the basic mechanism for how circulation occurs in each of the following groups of organisms.
    a. open circulatorysystem:
    b. closed circulatory system.
    • a. open circulatory system: Via hemocyanin pumped by the heart
    • b. closed circulatory system. Via blood (hemoglobin) pumped by the heart
  62. What are the three main types of blood vessels in the circulatory system of vertebrates?
    (1) Arteries (2) capillaries (3) veins
  63. Through which of the types of blood vessels in the vertebrate circulatory system does most gas exchange occur?
    Capillaries
  64. Which groups of organisms typically have single circulation?
    Bony fishes, rays, sharks (least efficient method)
  65. Which groups of organisms typically have double circulation?
    Mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds
  66. Which group(s) of vertebrates have a two-chambered heart?
    Bony fishes, rays, sharks
  67. Which group(s) of vertebrates have a three-chambered heart?
    Amphibians, reptiles
  68. Which group(s) of vertebrates have a four-chambered heart?
    Mammals, birds
  69. Why is a four-chambered heart an advantage in endothermic organisms?
    Most efficient at pumping blood and keeping oxygen-rich and oxygen- poor blood separated
  70. What are the main components of blood plasma?
    90% water, inorganic salts (electrolytes), plasma proteins
  71. Cite six functions of the various proteins found in blood plasma.
    (1) Buffer blood pH (2) contribute to viscosity (3) lipid transport (4) osmotic balance (5) aid blood clotting (6) immunity
  72. Cite the function(s) of the red blood cells.
    Transport oxygen
  73. Cite the function(s) of the white blood cells.
    Body defense (immunity system)
  74. What are blood “platelets”, and what is their function?
    Fragments of bone marrow cells that function in blood clotting
  75. Explain how gases move in relation to their relative partial pressures.
    Gas diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure
  76. Cite two advantages of air as a respiratory medium (source of oxygen) over water.
    (1) Air has higher concentration of oxygen than water (2) air is less dense than water (3) air is less viscous than water (thick)
  77. Give the basic mechanism for gas exchange across the following types of respiratory surfaces, and give two examples of organisms that exchange gasses through each type of respiratory surface listed. skin:
    Via capillaries right below skin ( annelids, some amphibians)
  78. Give the basic mechanism for gas exchange across the following types of respiratory surfaces, and give two examples of organisms that exchange gasses through each type of respiratory surface listed.gills:
    Via Out foldings of body surface (fishes, sharks)
  79. Give the basic mechanism for gas exchange across the following types of respiratory surfaces, and give two examples of organisms that exchange gasses through each type of respiratory surface listed.Tracheal systems:
    Via branch tubes that penetrate body (Grasshoppers, flies)
  80. Give the basic mechanism for gas exchange across the following types of respiratory surfaces, and give two examples of organisms that exchange gasses through each type of respiratory surface listed. Lungs:
    Via infoldings of body surface (humans, birds)
  81. Outline the pathway that inhaled air takes in the mammalian respiratory system.
    Nostrils - pharynx - larynx -trachea -bronchi - bronchioles - alveoli
  82. Where does most gas exchange occur within the mammalian respiratory system?
    Alveoli
  83. Briefly describe how circulation and gas exchange are coordinated in mammals (how is blood flow to and from the lungs coordinated with gas exchange across the alveoli)?
    In the alveoli, oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the air
  84. What three ways is carbon dioxide transported within the mammalian body? In what form is most carbon dioxide transported throughout the mammalian body?
    • (1) Blood plasma proteins = 7% (2) bound to hemoglobin = 23% (3) as bicarbonate ions
    • Majority of carbon dioxide is transported via hemoglobin
  85. Osmoregulation:
    Regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water
  86. Excretion:
    Excretion: Gets rid of nitrogenous and other wastes
  87. Osmolarity:
    Total solute concentration of a solution (expressed as molarity) -determines the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
  88. Isoosmotic:
    Two solutions have the same osmolarlity
  89. Hypoosmotic:
    Of, relating to, or characterized by an increased osmotic pressure (typically higher than the physiological level).
  90. Osmoconformer:
    An animal that is isoosmotic with their surroundings, do not regulate their osmolarity
  91. Osmoregulator:
    Expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment
  92. Stenohaline animals:
    Animals that cannot tolerate large changes in external osmolarity
  93. Euryhaline animals:
    Animals that can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity
  94. Anhydrobiosis:
    A Dormant sate involving almost all loss of body water (Some aquatic invertebrates in temporary ponds survive dry periods in a dormant state)
  95. Transport epithelia:
    One or more layers of specialized epithelia cells that regulate solute movements
  96. Kidney:
    The excretory organs of vertebrates, function in both excretion and osmoregulation
  97. Ureter:
    A duct where urine exits kidney
  98. Urethra:
    Place where urine is expelled through
  99. Coelom:
    Body cavity between the body wall and digestive system
  100. Briefly describe how marine (saltwater) animals maintain osmotic balance.
    They gain water and salt ions from food and water, and excrete ions and small amounts of water from the gills and urine
  101. Briefly describe how freshwater animals maintain osmotic balance.
    They gain water and some ions from food (no drinking) and gills, and excrete large amounts of water in dilute urine
  102. Briefly describe how terrestrial (land-dwelling) animals maintain osmotic balance.
    Loss of water is counterbalanced by drinking/eating, metabolically (via cellular respiration) and physical adaptations
  103. What are the two sources of most nitrogenous wastes in animals?
    (1) Proteins (2) Nucleic acids
  104. List the three most common forms in which nitrogenous wastes are excreted from animals, and give two examples of organisms that excrete each type of nitrogenous waste.
    (1) Ammonia (fishes, most aquatic animals) (2) Urea (mammals, most adult amphibians) (3) Uric acids (insects and birds)
  105. What are the advantages and disadvantages of urea as a nitrogenous waste product (relative to ammonia).
    Advantage- less toxic to cells and requires less water loss. Disadvantage –requires energy to convert ammonia to urea
  106. What are the advantages and disadvantages of uric acid as a nitrogenous waste product (relative to ammonia and urea).
    Advantages- requires very little water. Disadvantages- most energy intensive to produce
  107. Describe the basic steps / functions of an excretory system.
    a. filtration:
    b. reabsorption:
    c. secretion:
    d. excretion:
    • filtration: Pressure-filtering of body fluids
    • reabsorption: Reclaiming valuable solutes
    • secretion: Adding toxins and other solutes from the body fluids to filtrate
    • excretion: Removing the filtrate from the system
  108. Name at least one group of organisms that uses each of the excretory structures listed below.
    a. protonephridia:
    b. metanephridia:
    c. Malpighian tubules:
    d. kidneys:
    • a. protonephridia: Flatworms
    • b. metanephridia: Segmented worms
    • c. Malpighian tubules: Insects and spiders
    • d. kidneys: Vertebrates
  109. Fission (as related to asexual reproduction in animals):
    Separation of a parent into two more individuals of about the same size
  110. Budding (as related to asexual reproduction in animals):
    New individuals arise from outgrowth of existing individuals
  111. Fragmentation (as related to asexual reproduction in animals):
    Body breaks into pieces, some of which develop into an adult
  112. Regeneration (as related to asexual reproduction in animals):
    Regrowth of lost body parts
  113. Parthenogenesis:
    Development of a new individual from an unfertilized egg
  114. Hermaphroditism:
    Each individual has male and female reproductive systems (some can self -fertilize)
  115. Give two examples of animals that reproduce asexually by fission.
    (1) Sea anemone (2) corals
  116. Give two examples of animals that reproduce asexually by fission.
    (1) Sea anemone (2) corals
  117. Give two examples of animals that reproduce asexually by fragmentation and regeneration.
    (1) Sea star (2) planarian
  118. Give two examples of animals that reproduce asexually by parthenogenesis.
    (1) Bees (2) Aphids
  119. Cite the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction (as compared to sexual reproduction).
    Advantages- All individuals reproduce, No need for mates, Perpetuates successful genotypes. Disadvantages- No genetic variation, cannot adapt to changing environment
  120. Cite the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction (as compared to asexual reproduction).
    Advantages- Genetic variation, increased survival in a changing environment, Elimination of harmful genes from the population. Disadvantage- Only half of the individuals are able to reproduce, Not all offspring are adapted to environment
  121. What advantage might hermaphroditism confer on a population of organisms?
    Sometimes they can self-fertilize. Also, any two can mate without regard to gender.
  122. Give two examples of hermaphroditic animals.
    (1) Earth worms (2) Sea slugs
  123. What advantage might the ability of an individual to undergo sex reversal during its lifetime confer on a population of organisms?
    Allows population to survive if all males or all females die.
  124. Give one example of an organism that undergoes sex reversal during its lifetime.
    Wrasses
  125. Give three mechanisms that help mediate critical timing of fertilization.
    (1) Environmental cues, (2) pheromones (3) courtship behavior
  126. Describe how external fertilization occurs.
    Eggs shed by the female are fertilized by sperm in the external environment
  127. What are some advantages of external fertilization (as compared to internal fertilization)?
    It produces more gametes the internal fertilization
  128. What are some disadvantages of external fertilization (as compared to internal fertilization)?
    Requires water in order for the eggs/ sperm to not dry out
  129. Give two examples of organisms that undergo external fertilization.
    (1) Frogs (2) Fish
  130. Describe how internal fertilization occurs.
    Sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract, and fertilization occurs within the tract
  131. What are some advantages of internal fertilization (as compared to external fertilization)?
    Greater protection for embryo and parental care
  132. What are some disadvantages of internal fertilization (as compared to external fertilization)?
    Requires behavioral interactions and compatible copulatory organs must be developed
  133. Give two examples of organisms that undergo internal fertilization.
    (1) Horses (2) bears

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