Medical Basics

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Medical Basics
2012-04-06 22:40:19

Urinary System
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  1. Arteriole
    Small artery
  2. Calyx or calix
    (Plural: calyces or calices)
    Cup-like collecting region of the pelvis.
  3. Catheter
    Tube for injecting or removing fluids.
  4. Cortex
    Outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney ( cortical means pertaining to the cortex).
  5. Creatinine
    Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood.
  6. electrolyte
    Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Electrolytes are necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves. The kidneys maintain the proper balance of electrolytes and in the blood. Potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) are electrolytes.
  7. Erythropoietin (EPO)
    Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow. -protein means a substance that forms.
  8. Filtration
    Process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter. In the kidney, blood pressure forces materials through the filter (glomerulus). About 180 quarts of fluid are filtered from the daily, but the kidney returns 98% of the water and salts. Only about 11/2 quarts (1500 mL) of urine are excreted daily.
  9. Glomerular Capsule
    Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. The glomerular capsule is also known as Bowman capsule and the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
  10. Glomerulus (plural: glomeruli)
    Tiny ball of capillaries ( microscopic blood vessels in the kidney).
  11. Hilum
    Depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
  12. Kidney
    One of two bean shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine.
  13. Meatus
    Opening or Canal.
  14. Medulla
    Inner region of an organ. The renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney (medullary means pertaining to the medulla).
  15. Nephron
    Combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. It is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself. There are about 1 million nephrons in a kidney.
  16. Nitrogenous Waste
    Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine.
  17. Potassium (K+)
    An electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood. Potassium is essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses.
  18. Reabsorption
    Process whereby renal tubules return material necessary to the body back the bloodstream.
  19. Renal Artery
    Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
  20. Renal Pelvis
    Central collecting region in the kidney.
  21. Renal Tubule
    Microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
  22. Renal Vein
    Blood vessels that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart.
  23. Renin
    Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vascontriction (narrowing of blood vessels).
  24. Sodium
    An electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and other metabolic functions.
  25. Trigone
    Triangular area in the urinary bladder.
  26. Urea
    Major nitrogeous waste excreted in urine.
  27. Ureter
    One of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
  28. Urethra
    Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of body.
  29. Uric Acid
    Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
  30. Urinary Bladder
    Hollow; muscular sac that holds and stores urine.
  31. Urination (voiding)
    Process of expelling urine, also called micturition.
  32. cali/o, calic/o
    calyx (calix)
  33. cyst/o
    urinary bladder
  34. glomerul/o
  35. meat/o
  36. nephr/o
  37. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  38. ren/o
  39. trigon/o
    trigone (region of the bladder)
  40. ureter/o
  41. urethr/o
  42. albumin/o
    albumin (a protein in the blood)
  43. azot/o
  44. bacteri/o
  45. dips/o
  46. kal/o
  47. ket/o, keton/o
    ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
  48. lith/o
  49. natr/o
  50. noct/o
  51. olig/o
  52. -poietin
    substance that forms
  53. py/o
  54. -tripsy
  55. ur/o
  56. urin/o
  57. -uria
    urination; urine condition