BIOL 1202 exam 2

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BIOL 1202 exam 2
2012-04-05 12:55:27
pollock biology 1202 exam

second BIOL 1202 exam for pollock
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  1. 5 kingdom classification system in use through the late 1900s
    • monera
    • protista
    • plantae
    • fungi
    • animalia
  2. taxon (taxa) - the named taxonomic unit(s) at any level in this taxonomic hierarchy
    "Did King Philip come over for gumbo Sunday?"
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  3. today's 3 domain system
    • bacteria
    • archaea
    • eukarya
  4. how many kingdoms?
    • bacterial
    • archaean
    • protistan
    • plantae
    • fungi
    • animalia
  5. all living things are either _____ or ______
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  6. taaxonomy
    naming and classifying organisms
  7. systematics
    naming and classifying organisms according to their evolutionary relationships
  8. phylogenetics
    reconstructing the evolutionary relationhsips among organisms
  9. phylogenetic tree
    hypothesized genealogy traced back to the last common ancestor (i.e., the most recent) through hierarchical, dichotomous branching
  10. cladistics
    the principles that guide the production of phylogenetic trees, a.k.a., cladograms
  11. node, brand point, speciation event
    point where things intersect like on the graph where they branch off
  12. lineage or clade
    • an entire branch
    • the entire graph/branch
  13. clade
    • a monophyletic group
    • an ancestral species and all of its descendants
  14. paraphyletic group lacks...
    the common ancestor of species in the group
  15. cladistic principles allow us to...
    construct hypothesized phylogenetic trees
  16. fossils provide
    morphological data for extinct species
  17. convergent evolution
    can provide superficially similar traits that lack homology with one another
  18. homologous characteristics
    share common ancestry
  19. divergence
    lack of similarity among taxa
  20. analogous characters
    do not share common ancestry
  21. convergence
    similarity among taxa
  22. more homologous characters shared by two species
    more closely they are related
  23. ingroup
    group whose relationships we are trying to resolve
  24. outgroup
    • a species known to have an older most recent common ancestor with the ingroup than the ingroup's most recent common ancestor
    • helps identify shared ancestral and shared derived characters (unique to a clade)
  25. parsimonious tree
    one that requires the fewest evolutionary events
  26. three lines of defense against microbial attack
    • innate defenses, acquired immunity
    • external barriers
    • 2 nonspecific internal defenses
  27. external barriers
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • stomach
  28. skin as an external barrier
    • physical barrier to microbia entry
    • inhospitable environment for growth
    • dry, dead cells at surface
    • sweat/sebaceous glands secreting acids and natural antibiotics like lactic acid
  29. mucous membranes as external barrier
    • mucous membraes of respiratory and digestive tracts well-defined
    • secretions have antibacterial enzymes
  30. stomach as external barrier
    if microbes swallowed, acids and protein-digesting enzymes destroy them
  31. what is responsible for many biogeographic distribution patterns?
    continental drift
  32. what results from plate tectonics?
    continental drift
  33. range in size of prokaryotes?
    .2-1.0 micrometers in diameter
  34. range in size of unicellular eukaryotes
    10-100 micrometers
  35. biological entities that are even smaller than bacteria
    • viruses
    • viroids
    • prions
    • they are not organisms because they don't have all of the characteristics of living organisms
  36. viruses
    • .05-.2 micrometers
    • come in may different shapes
  37. all virus particles have two parts, some have a third:
    • genome
    • capsid
    • sometimes, an envelope
  38. genome
    • genetic information
    • can be either single-stranded or double stranded DNA or RNA
  39. capsid
    protein coat which surrounds and protects the genome
  40. envelope
    membrane (phospholipid bilayer) which surrounds the capsid
  41. function of a virus
    • to take control of a host cell to produe more virus particles
    • a biological hijacking
    • cell type that a virus will infect is usually very specific and the host species which the virus can infect are often a narrow range
  42. because viruses require a host for their reproduction,
    they are not alive
  43. viroid
    • even simpler and smaller than viruses
    • small fragments of single-stranded RNA (either linear or circular) with no protein coat
  44. function of a viroid
    • take over the cell it infects
    • plant pathogens which can infect citrus, potatoes, and other crop species
  45. prions
    • unusual infectious particles
    • improperly folded version of a natural protein
    • this wrongly folded protein causes other copies to convert from the correct folding pattern into the incorect
    • as the bad copies accumulate, they result in physical changes in the tissue
  46. examples of prions:
    • linked to degenerative diseases of nervous tissue, especially the brain
    • most recently, "mad cow disease"
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru
  47. origin of prions?
    not certain, but probably developed as a by-product of living organisms
  48. Deinococcus radiodurans
    • survive 3000x more radiation than humans
    • tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold
    • used to "chew up" toxic waste
    • "super bacterium"
  49. prokaryotes domains
    Bacteria and Archaea
  50. prokaryotes have a cell wall
    semi-rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate with amino acids attached). Gives bacteria the different types of characteristic shapes
  51. shapes of prokaryotes
    • bacilli: rod-shaped
    • cocci: spherical
    • spirilla: helical or corkscrew shaped
  52. surrounding cell walls of some bacteria are:
    • either capsules or slime layers composed of polysaccarides and/or proteins
    • function is to attach the bacteria to a surface and act as a protective layer
  53. capsule
    highly organized, firmly attached to cell wall
  54. slime layer
    less organized, loosely attached to cell wall
  55. pili (pilus)
    hair-like structures on the surface of certain bacteria which aid in attachment
  56. rotating flagella
    • about half the bacterial species are capable of motion using this
    • filaments which extend from the membrane of a cell and are used for cellular locomotion
    • structurally different from eukaryotic flagella
  57. endospore
    • protective "resting" structures
    • bacteria surrounded by durable cell wall
    • resistant to extreme conditions: extreme dehydration, extreme hot or cold, most poisons
    • will persist until conditions are favorable then will develop into bacteria
  58. prokaryotic reproduction
    • asexual in the form of binary fission (the entire bacterial chromosome is replicated and passed on to each daughter cell)
    • sexual in the form of conjugation using plasmids (some bacteria are able to transfer genetic information between cells by bacterial conjugation: the transfer of genetic information [a plasmid] between two bacteria via a special sex pili. this plasmid is a small double-stranded ring of DNA that carries extrachromosomal genes in some bacteria)
  59. energy sources of prokaryotes
    • autotrophs, using photosynthesis (sunlight) or chemosynthesis (inorganic chemicals)
    • heterotrophs, including symbiotes: may occur aerobically or anaerobically, some cases food is obtained through a mutualistic symbiotic relationship in exchange for some other commodity
  60. most bacteria are harmless (or even beneficial) to humans, some are pathogenic. some diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria are:
    • gonorrhea
    • syphilis
    • TB
    • Lyme disease
  61. antibiotic resistance
    • some pathogenic bacteria have developed this because of the widespread use (and misuse) of antibiotics
    • 70% of bacterial infections contracted in hospitals are resisted to at least 1 antibiotic
  62. bacteria vs. archaea
    • similar: single-celled, prokaryotes, small size
    • different: cell membrane lipids structure, cell wall composition, rRNA subunit sequences,
  63. protists
    • kingdom which represents an unusual mix of organisms
    • all eukaryotic, mostly unicellular
    • differences between the protists and the rest of the eukaryotes not quite as clear
  64. three groups of protists
    • fungus-like protists: unicellular decomposers
    • plant-like protists: (phytoplankton and algae) represent base of most aquatic food webs (lots of photosynthesis and O2 production
  65. fungus-like protists
    • water molds
    • slime molds
  66. slime molds
    • have a two part life cycle in which the cells of many "individuals" form an interactive aggregate which is almost multicellular (mobile feeding stage and stationary reproductive stage with fruiting bodies that produce spores)
    • acellular slime molds - division myxomycota
    • cellular slime molds - division acrasiomycota
  67. water molds
    (division oomycota): characterized by filamentous bodies and mobile flagellated (can swim) gametes
  68. acellular slime molds - division myxomycota
    • multi-nucleated acellular organisms
    • are acellular (without cells) because mobile stage goes through mitosis but not cytokinesis (splitting of cells)
    • moves through decaying material engulfing bateria and food particles
  69. cellular slime molds - division acrasiomycota
    • single celled feeding stage
    • characterized by individual solitary cells
    • amoeboid movement using pseudopodia
    • aggregate (clump up) for reproduction during environmental stress
  70. plant-like protists (phytoplankton and algae)
    • dinoflagellates - division pyrrophyta
    • diatoms - division chrysophyta
    • euglenoids - division euglenophyta
    • simple plants (algae)
  71. dinoflagellates - division pyrrophyta
    most are marine, 2 flagella
  72. diatoms - division chrysophyta
    freshwater or marine, glasslike shells with holes to allow for exchange of substances
  73. euglenoids - division euglenophyta
    • most freshwater
    • 1-3 flagella
    • mostly photosynthetic
    • lack cell wall
    • have photoreceptor called "eyespot"
  74. simple plants (algae)
    • some species of plant-like protists (the "seaweeds" have just been moved from Kingdom Plantae to Protista
    • 3 divisions:
    • red algae - division rhodophyta