Language and Communication

Card Set Information

Language and Communication
2012-04-06 18:42:08
Language Communication

Language and Communication 311
Show Answers:

  1. Autism
    A syndrome characterized by disordered social interactions and problems with language and communication
  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
    A cluster of five related syndromes that vary in terms of language skill deficits, children's IQ, and the appearance and course of symptoms
  3. Babbling
    Patterned but meaningless sequences of reduplicated sounds, such as strings of syllables
  4. Constrained Statistical Learning Framework
    The ability to extract recurring patterns from repeated experience with stimuli
  5. Grammar
    Systems of rules for combining words or signs
  6. Holophrase
    Infants' first one-word utterances that name objects but also communicate other meanings
  7. Infant-Directed Speech
    Modifications that adults make when speaking (or signing) to infants, producing language that is shorter, more repetitive, higher-pitched, more variable in pitch, and less semantically and grammatically complex than language addressed to adults
  8. Joint Attention
    Nonverbal adjustments in posture, gaze, and head orientation that enable infant-adult dyads to focus their attention together on objects or events
  9. Lexical Contrast
    The ability to learn a new word's meaning by comparing it to words that are already known
  10. Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)
    A measure of grammatical development that is based on the number of morphemes in speech
  11. Morphemes
    Minimal meaningful units in speech, such as words, parts of words, or word endings
  12. Mutual Exclusivity Assumption
    A constraint on learning that guides children to assume that objects will have only one name and to look for a nameless object when they hear a new word
  13. Overextension
    A common error in which children apply grammatical morphemes to words for which a language makes an exception to the rule
  14. Perceptual Magnet Effect
    A phenomenon in which acoustic space is altered as a result of increasing sensitivity to native language phonemes and delining sensitivity to nonnative language phonemes
  15. Phonemes
    Linguistically meaningful phonetic categories that signal differences in words through combinations of vowels and consonants
  16. Phonetics
    A sets of vowels and consonants that a particular language uses
  17. Phonology
    Sound patterns of language
  18. Pragmatics
    Using language for particular purposes in specific social contexts
  19. Referential Cues
    Verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as gaze, facial expression, and head orientation, that reflect an individual's attentional focus, intentions, or expectations
  20. Semantics
    Meanings of words or signs
  21. Syllables
    Combinations of consonants and vowels, such as baba and mama
  22. Taxonomic Assumption
    A constraint on learning that guides children to assume that new words should be extended to objects within the same category rather than thematic associates
  23. Telegraphic Speech
    Early two-word and multiword utterances that sound like telegrams because they lack grammatical markers and extra words, such as articles, plural endings, prepositions and auxiliary verbs
  24. Underextension
    An error in which children apply a word only to a specific instance or fail to use it to refer to other referents for which the word would be correct
  25. Whole Object Assumption
    A constraint on learning that guides children to assume that new words refer to whole object rather than actions, spatial location, or parts or features of objects