General Ecology

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General Ecology
2012-05-06 17:25:52

CH 9-14
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  1. Definition of Mimicry
    and animal or plant that pretends to be somethin else to decieve member of another or its own species
  2. Crypsis
  3. Tree hoppers
    resemble thorns of a rose bush
  4. looper Inchworms
    Have a U gait when moving, when threatend normall soft body goes rigid
  5. Biston Betularia
    Peppered moth
  6. Butterfly fish
    Phony eye spot on tail
  7. Aggressive Mimicry
    mimics another species to gain something other than protection from predation
  8. Angler fish
    angle for their prey with dummy bait
  9. Cleaner Warse
    removes parasites and dead tissue from other fish for food
  10. Bee orchids
    eveloved to resemble the bees that polinate them
  11. Batseam Mimicry
    resemble an aposmatic spceies (bad tasting)
  12. 3 parts required for Batseam Mimicry
    • distasteful species (model)
    • edible species (mimic)
    • Predator (signal reciever)
  13. Steps in Evolution of Batsean Mimicry
    • Model is obnoxious (physically harming)
    • Model had color or pattern (or signal)
    • Signal reciever learns to avoid model
    • avoidence of model gives evolutionary advantage to mimic
    • mimic evolves to resemble model
  14. Bumblebee Moth
    matches bumblebee form and color
  15. Palatable roaches
    resemble leef beetles and ladybird beetles
  16. 2 natural forces of Natural selection on Pathogens
    • within host, resources are unlimites
    • longterm fitness is dependent on transfering hosts
  17. define population
    a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a specific area
  18. Define Distribution
    size, shape, and location of the occupied area
  19. TYpe 1 surviorship curve
    HIgh survival for young, high mortality for old
  20. Type 2 survivorshihp curve
    constant rate of survival
  21. Type 3 survivorship curve
    HIgh mortality of young, low mortality od Mature
  22. r selection
    • high population growth
    • rapid development
    • early reproduction
    • small body
    • reproduces once
    • many small offspring
  23. K selection
    • utalizes resources
    • slow development
    • Late reproduction
    • large body size
    • multiple clutches
    • produces few large offspring
  24. intraspecific competition
    within memebrs of own species
  25. interspecific competition
    competition between individuals of other species (reduces fittness of both)
  26. Interference competition
    direct aggressive competition between individuals
  27. In a transplant experiment where you move several organisms of the same species to an area previously unoccupied, you find that the organisms survive. Which of the following conclusions is NOT reasonable? a. The organisms had previously chosen not to inhabit the area.
    b. The organisms had been prevented by some sort of barrier from dispersing to the area. c. Not enough time had elapsed to permit the species to disperse to the area. d. Physical and chemical conditions in the area had prevented the organism from surviving. e. b and c
    Physical and chemical conditions in the area had prevented the organism from surviving
  28. Which of the following is an example of aggressive mimicry?
    a. Sabre-toothed blenny mimics coloration and behavior of a cleaner wrasse.
    b. Tree hopper resembles thorns on the stem of a rosebush. c. Viceroy butterfly mimics the coloration pattern of the Monarch butterfly. d. Looper inchworm resembles a branch in coloration and rigidity. e. Butterfly fish has an eyespot on the tail that mimics its true eye.
    a. Sabre-toothed blenny mimics coloration and behavior of a cleaner wrasse.
  29. The annual growth rate of the human population on earth peaked in the _______, and has been decreasing ever since.
  30. In the logistic growth model, the expression ((K-N)/K) represents
    the effect of intraspecific competition on population growth
  31. In the equation dNpred/dt = c*p*Nprey*Npred – d*Npred, the term c represents the
    . conversion rate of prey into predator
  32. Lynx and hare densities in the boreal forest cycle on roughly a decadal time scale. What factor is most responsible for the peak density reached by hare during each cycle
    An interaction in the combined effect of food density and mammalian predator density
  33. . Match the following dispersion patterns (1-3) with the correct example (a-d).
    1. Regular 2. Clumped 3. Random
    A. variance > mean of a randomly sampled population
    B. adult tree arrangement in forest
    C. variance = mean of a randomly sampled population
    D. least common in nature
    A. 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 3-d
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. In crypsis mimicry, either an animal changes its color to fit the background or the animal searches for a background which matches its coloration. b. In crypsis mimicry, the adaptation of crypsis has to be a perfect match to the surroundings to afford any protection at all. c. Mimicry is reasonably defined as a situation where an organism pretends to be something else to deceive members of another species or its own species. d. Batesian mimicry is named after the English naturalist H.W. Bates who described the phenomenon. e. The bumblebee moth from North America is a good example of Batesian mimicry.
    In crypsis mimicry, the adaptation of crypsis has to be a perfect match to the surroundings to afford any protection at all.
  35. _____________ competitive ability, _______________ offspring, and ________________ development are generally associated with an r-selected life-history strategy
    Not strongly favored, many small, rapid
  36. Resources
    are consumed by an organism.
  37. The winning species in a competitive interaction:
    can survive and reproduce on less of the limiting resource per individual
  38. Within the first two years of the initial infection of Myxoma into the rabbit population in Australia, the death toll among rabbits declined, and the number of healthy rabbits began to rise because
    • natural selection lead to increased numbers of resistant rabbits.
    • the virulence grade of Myxoma quickly declined from grade I to grades II, III and IV
  39. Which of the following sets of traits are consistent with type III survivorship
    Lots of small offspring, low parental care
  40. Which of the following regarding K for humans on earth is FALSE? a. Estimates during the past couple of centuries have ranged from 1 billion to 1000 billion. b. There is probably no limit to K. c. It will likely depend in part on opportunities set by technology. d. It will likely depend in part on choices set by cultures and values. e. It will likely depend in part on constraints set by natural resources.
    There is probably no limit to K
  41. Examples of mimicry are known in which a species has evolved to resemble another species
    • a. sound. b. physical appearance. c. behavior.
    • d. scent.
    • e. all of the above
  42. Which of the following associations is CORRECT? a. Catch per unit effort fish data : Estimate of absolute density. b. Pelt record counts as with lynx and hare in Canada a century ago : Estimate of absolute density. c. Hawk Ridge bird count data : Estimate of relative density. d. Quadrat sampling data : Estimate of relative density. e. None of the above is correct.
    Hawk Ridge bird count data : Estimate of relative density
  43. The scenario shown below, where several shorebirds of the same species are consuming a limited supply of invertebrates in the benthos, is an example of ________________.
    • b. scramble competition
    • c. intraspecific competition
    • d. b and c
  44. In regions of the world where the malaria parasite (Plasmodium) and its associated mosquito vector are common, the regional incidence of sickle-cell anemia
    is high because the mutant gene in a single dose provides some resistance to malaria, so the gene is maintained in the population
  45. According to the video that you watched entitled “Race to Save the Planet”, early attempts at sedentary lifestyles
    • b. lead to increased birth rates per female.
    • c. were prompted by climate changes that reduced precipitation.
    • d. b and c
  46. In the basic model of population growth (Nfuture = Npresent + B – D + I – E), the terms B
    and E represent
    Birth and Emigration
  47. The four main factors responsible for a population’s distribution include all of the following EXCEPT: a. physical and chemical factors. b. behavior.
    c. other species.
    d. birth rates.
    e. dispersal.
    birth rates
  48. The capture-recapture method of density estimation is well suited for:
    mobile, secretive organisms like bats.
  49. Parasitism is best defined as an interaction between species where
    one species depends metabolically on another species causing harm to it but not necessarily death.
  50. The carrying capacity of a population is
    • b. set by environmental limits.
    • c. the maximum sustainable N of a population