20-1 From OT to NT
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20-1 From OT to NT
When did the Jews rebel against the Hellenic Seleucid Empire?
Who is the father of the five Macabee brothers?
Who founded the Hasmonean dynasty?
When did Hasmonean dynasty become independent from the Seleucid Empire?
When was the (Second) Temple rededicated by Judas Maccabeus?
What does Hanukkah commemorate?
the rededication of the Temple by Judas Maccabeus in 164 BC
Who led the Hasmonean dynasty after the Maccabees died?
John Hyrcanus, reigning from 134-104 BC
Who was the last Maccabee brother?
What was the status of John Hyrcanus? What was his title?
ethnarch and High Priest
What is an ethnarch?
a political leader over an ethnic group
What happened in John Hyrcanus' early years of reign with regard to the dynasty's foreign relations?
His reign began with a year-long siege of Jerusalem by Antiochus VII Sidetes.
What did John Hyrcanus do to pacify the Seleucids under Antiochus VII Sidetes?
He paid a large tribute and fought as auxiliaries for the Seleucids in Parthia.
When did John Hyrcanus die?
Who assumed John Hyrcanus' role as priest and ethnarch?
His son, Aristobulus I, succeeded his father as priest.
His wife now led the government.
What was the notorious act committed by Aristobulus I?
He murdered his mother and declared himself king.
What makes Aristobulus I different from all his predecessors in the Hasmonean dynasty?
He was the first Hasmonean ruler to name himself king; the previous rulers were content with the title
When did Aristobulus I reign?
Who succeeded Aristobulus I?
Alexander Jannaeus, reigning from 103-76 BC, as king and high priest.
Who is Alexander Jannaeus, in relation to John Hyrcanus?
Alexander Jannaeus is a son of John Hyrcanus.
What is the problem with both the kingship and priesthood of the Hasmonean dynasty?
The kings don't descend from David, and the priests don't descend from Levi.
To what tribe do the Maccabees belong?
Which school of Judaism supported Alexander Jannaeus?
Which school of Judaism opposed Alexander Jannaeus?
Why was the Hasmonean dynasty weakened?
Jannaeus provoked a civil war and committed brutal atrocities against conquered rebels, which caused internal conflicts.
Who succeeded Alexander Jannaeus?
Salome Alexander, a queen, reigning from 76-67 BC
Which school of Judaism did Salome Alexander support?
What did Salome Alexander do in support of the Pharisees/
She reestablished the Sanhedrin.
What was the Sanhedrin?
The Sanhedrin was an assembly of 71 judges, which by the first century BC legislated all aspects of Jewish political and religious life.
What would the Sanhedrin be an equivalent of in the modern judicial system?
The Sanhedrin could be considered a Supreme Court of Jewish religion.
When was the destruction of the Sanhedrin?
in the war against Rome in 66-70 AD
Who succeeded Salome Alexander?
Her son, Aristobulus II, ruling as High Priest and King of Judea from 67-63 BC
How did Aristobulus II meet his end?
Following a civil war with his brother, Aristobulus II was murdered under Pompey.
What marks the end of the Hasmonean Dynasty?
The death of Aristobulus II (r. 67-63 BC) under Pompey of Rome.
When did Pompey capture Jerusalem, thereby making Judea a subject of Rome?
What was the status of the Kingdom of Judea under Rome?
a Roman client state
Who was the high priest and ethnarch of Judea following its capture by the Romans?
Hyrcanus II (r. 63-40 BC)
Who appointed Herod the Great the governor of Galilee?
Marc Antony, a Roman general (b. 83 - d. 30 BC)
When was Herod the Great appointed the governor of Galilee by Marc Antony?
What begins the Herodian dynasty?
the appointing of Herod the Great as the governor of Galilee in 47 BC by Marc Antony
What was the ethnicity of Herod? What did he pretend to be?
Herod was not Jewish, although he attempted to portray himself as Jewish.
He was an Idumean (that is, he was from Edom).
What did the Roman Senate elect Herod to be?
King of the Jews
When did Herod conquer all of Judea?
Who was one of Herod's wives?
Miriamne of the Hasmonean family--a great-great-granddaughter of Simon Maccabeus.
What did Herod do to the Hasmoneans?
He murdered all Hasmonean heirs, including his own sons by Miriamne.
How did Herod stay in Roman favor?
by continually paying tribute and by bestowing lavish gifts upon prominent Romans
Why is Herod called "great"?
because of his building projects
What was the most audacious building project undertaken by Herod?
He built the New Temple, which rivaled Solomon's.
When was the building of the Temple by Herod began,a dn when was it finished?
Began in 20 BC, finished 63 AD
What else did Herod build besides the Temple?
magnificent fortresses and palaces
What does tetrarchy mean?
rule of four
What did the kingdom of Judea become after the death of Herod?
Kingdom of Judea became a Roman province in charge of a tetrarchy, divided four ways among Herod's sons.
When did Herod the Great die?
Who were Herod's four sons succeeding him?
Herod Antipas (Galilee and Perea)
Herod Philip (northern part of Herod's kingdom)
Herod Archelaus (Judea, the largest part of Herod's kingdom)
Who came to rule all the territories of Herod the Great?
Herod Agrippa I, a Roman client, from 34-44 AD
When did Herod Agrippa II begin to rule Palestine?
Whose death, and when, marks the end of the Herodian dynasty?
Herod Agrippa II, in 92 AD
Who defeated Pompey and Marc Antony in a great civil war?
Caesar Augustus Octavian
Who is the first emperor of Rome?
Caesar Augustus Octavian
When did Augustus rule as Roman emperor?
27 BC-14 AD
What was the scope of the Roman empire under Augustus?
Spain in the west to Arabia in the east, including northern coast of Africa
How long did Pax Romana last?
about 200 years (27 BC - 180 AD)
What were the results of Pax Romana?
The Mediterranean world remained at peace for more than 2 centuries
One could safely travel from Spain to Palestine, travel from Britain to Africa, and sail the Mediterranean without fear of piracy.
When did Nero reign?
When did Nero blame Christians for the great fire in Rome?
When was the Jewish revolt against the Romans/
When did Vespasian reign?
Under which Roman emperor did Jerusalem fall?