HCCC A&P Lecture Test III

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HCCC A&P Lecture Test III
2012-05-08 15:44:07
HCCC Muscles Nervous Systems

Possible Lecture test questions for A&P I
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  1. Name the three types of muscle tissue
    • Skeletal muscle tissue
    • Cardiac muscle tissue
    • Smooth muscle tissue
  2. Describe Skeletal muscle tissue
    Skeletal muscle tissue attaches to the bones, voluntary muscles and is striated.
  3. Describe Cardiac muscle tissue
    Cardiac muscle tissue occurs only in the heart; is straited and is involuntary.
  4. Describe Smooth muscle tissue
    Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow viceral organs, such as the stomach. It is nonstriated & involuntary.
  5. Name for four special characteristics of Muscle tissue
    • Excitability
    • Contractility
    • Extensibility
    • Elasticity
  6. Describe Excitability in muscle tissue.
    • Excitability is the capacity of muscle to respond to a stimulus.
    • Skeletal muscle to nervous stimuli
    • Cardiac/smooth to nervous and hormonal
  7. Describe Contractility in muscle tissue
    Is the ability to shorten forcefully. When muscle contract, it causes movement of the structures to which it is attached or it may increase pressure inside hollow organs or vessels.
  8. Describe Extensibility in muscle tissue.
    it means that muscle can be stretched beyond its normal resting length ans is still able to contract.
  9. Describe Elasticity in muscle tissue.
    it is the ability of muscle to recoil to its orginal resting length after it has been stretched.
  10. Name the six functions of Skelteal muscle
    • Movement
    • Maintain posture and body position
    • Support soft tissue
    • Guard Entrance/Exits
    • Maintian Body temperture
    • Store nutrient reserves
  11. Name the three types of Muscle Connective Tissue Sheaths.
    • Epimysium
    • Perimysium (surrounds fascicles)
    • Endomysium
  12. What is the Epimysium
    It means "outside the muslce" and is an "overcoat" of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle.
  13. What is the Perimysium
    Within each skeletal muscle, the muscle fibers are grouped into fascicles (bundles). Surrounding each fascicle is a layer of fibrous connective tissue called the perimysium.
  14. What is the Endomysium
    It means "within the muscle" is a whispy sheath of connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle fiber.
  15. Isotonic Contraction
    The muscles shorten; the force of contraction is constant.
  16. Isometric Contraction
    Is contraction without shortening of the sarcomeres that is produced by the sliding of thin myofilaments over and between the thick filaments.
  17. Relaxation of the muscle is due to
    ... low levels of CA+ in the the muscle.
  18. The Cardiac Muscle is
    a visceral muscle, they have actin and some myosin. Instead of Tropin/Torpinmysin, this muscle has calmodulin. Contraction is slow and sustained.
  19. The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of
    the brain and the spinal cord.
  20. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of
    Sensory receptors, nerves, and ganglia and plexuses.
  21. The nervous cell consists of...
    the neutron and neuroglia (non-nueral cells)

    • cell body is called a soma
    • the processes are called dendrites and axons
  22. The Neurton does what...
    It recieves stimuli and transmits action potential to the other neurons or the effector organs.
  23. Neuroglia of the CNS
    There are far more neuroglia than neurons and account for more than half the brains weight.
  24. What are Astrocytes?
    They are star shaped becase of the cytoplasmic process that extend from the cell body. They form a brain barrier.
  25. What are Ependymal Cells (CNS)
    These cells line the ventricles (cavaties) of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
  26. What is a Microglia cells (CNS)
    these are specialized macrophages in the CNS that become bobile and phagocytic in response to inflammation.
  27. What are Oligadendrocytes (CNS) or Shwann Cell (PNS)?
    they have cytoplasmic extensions that can surround axons. They form the myslin sheaths.
  28. What are Satellite cells (PNS)?
    They surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia; provide support and nutrients to the neuron cell bodies.
  29. What are Nodes of Ranvier and Internodes?
    Nodes of Ranvier are the gaps between myelined sheaths on the axon. The myelined sheathed area are call Internodes.