Micro - Chapter 1
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What are microorgnisms?
Microorgamisms are organims that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
What is meant by the term pathogenic?
any organisms causing disease
What is the beneficial role of microbes in recycling of nutrients within ecosystems?
Phytoplankton are involved in the carbon and oxygen cycles, via oxygenice photosynthesis. In this process, they use up carbon dioxide (help control global warming) and release oxygen.
What is the beneficial role of microbes in organic decompasition(sewage treatments)?
Sewage plant treatment remove the undesirable materials and harmful microorganisms. Bacteria converts organic materials into such by-products as carbon dioxide, nitrates phosphates, sulfates, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and methane.
Beneficial role of microbes as bioremediation?
Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants by breaking them down into less harmfull substances. Oil, Mercury.
Role of microorgamisms in food and beverages production?
- ~Yeast(unicellular fungi) ferment sugars, ethanol(in alcohol), carbon dioxide (forms bubles in bread causing to rise, and in beer and chapagne).
- ~Some bacteria metabolize various components of milk to make yogurts and cheese. Casein (milk protein) gives cheese and yourt sour taste.
- ~Coffee and cocoa fruits are fermented by microbes to soften and make beans harvestable.
Role of microbes as antibiotic production?
Antibiotic produced by microbs or the microbes are anibiotics.
Role of microbes as pesticides?
Microbes that are pathogenic to insects are alternatives to chemical pesticides that can be used to prvent isect damage to agricultural crops and disease tramsission. Ex. Bacillus thurigiensis.
Role of microorganisms in genetic engineering?
recombinant cells and orgamisms. Recombinant DNA techniques have been used to produce natural proteiins, vaccines, and ezymes.
What are normal microbiota? Where are they normally found? Where should they not be found?
- ~Normal microbiota prevent growth of pathogens by competing with them for resources. Secrete toxins that inhibit the growth of pathogens. Produce nutrients and growth factors such as folic acid and vitamin K that humans utilize.
- ~Normally found on the skin, in the oral-nasl cavities, in the resp. tract, digestive tract, and urogenital tract.
- ~Not found in the blood, CSF, muscle, nervous tissue, or bone.
Two hypotheses to explain hwo life began.
- 1600 - 1800
- 1. Spontaneous generation - living org. arise from nonliving. a "vital force" forms life.
- 2. Biogenesis - living org. arise from preexisting life.
1668 - 1st controlled scientific experience with jars filled with decaying meat. Disproved spontaneous generation.
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
1673 - observed first microbes and described live microorganisms (animalcules) that he observed in theeth scrapings, rainawter. This marked the beginning of microbiology.
1745 - show that boiled broth become contaminated after he boild it ant transferred to a flask. Prooved spont. gener.
1745 - showes that boild gravy will only spoil if exposed to air. Spont. gener. cannot be correct.
1857 - Pasteur showed yeasts are resposible for fermentation of wine. Bacteria produce acetic acid spoil whine by terning it into vinegar (acetic acid). Spoilage of food.
1857 - Pasteur demostarted that spoilage bacteria can be killed by heat.
Loius Pasteur in 1861
- ~ demostrated that microorgamisms are present in the air.
- ~final disproof of spont. gener. Boiled broth heated in a swam-necked flask without contamination.
- ~This experience started the "golden age of Microbiology", also immunity and antibiotics.
1665 - reporeted that living things were composed of little boxes, or cells.
1858 developes the cell theory. All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells.
Technique of streaking for isolation on solid media
1881 - Koch
Who developes nutrient agar?
1882 Hess, working in Koch's lab. Nutrient agar a new solid medium for microbial growth.
Who developed the idea of microorgamisms being involved in biogeochemical cycles?
1892 Sergei Winogradsky. The nitrogen cycle.
Development of the idea that hand washing is important for doctors?
1840 Ignaz Semmelweis
Development of the idea of aseptic surgery using a chemical antiseptic ( carbolic acid/phenol)
1867 Joseph Lister
- 1876: provied proof that a bacterium caues anthax. Proved Germ theory of disease.
- 1884: Koch's Postulates formalized. They are the set of steps required to identify the causatie agent of a disease.
1796: Edward Jenner performs the first vaccinations agaqinst smallpox.
Development of chemotherapy using the first synthetic drug ( called salvarsan)
1910 Paul ehrlich developed salvarsan.
are chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes.
Who discovered 1st antibiotic?
- 1928 Alexander Fleming
- 1940s penicillin was mass produced.
Development of 3-D model of the structure of DNA
1953 Watson and Crick
Who inserted animal DNA into bacterial DNA?
1970 , Paul Berg inserted anima DNA into bacterial DNA and the bacteria produced an animal protein. Also known as genetic engineering/recombinant DNA technology.
1735 Linnaeus establish the system of scientific nomenclature.Each organism has to names: the genus name and specific epithet (species)
- Unicellular, no nuclear membrane.
- 1.Prokaryotes (no nucleus)
- 2.Peptidoglycan in cell walls
- 3.Binary fission(cell division)
- 4. For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis.
- 5. Most are free-living decomposers or primary producers. Some are parasitic ans some are pathogenic.
- 6. Cell shape: rodlike, spherical and spiral.
- 7. Chromosomes: one, circular. no histones or introns.
- 8. Ribosomes 70s.
- 2. Lack Peptidoglycan.
- 3.Live in extreme environemnt :
- Methanogens - produce methane from carbon dioxide and H
- Extreme halophiles
- Extreme themrophils
- 4. Chromosomes: one. Circular with histones and introns.
- 5. Unicellular.
Eukarya and its kingdoms
- 1. Eukaryotic
- 2.Unicellular and mutlicellular
- 3.Chomosomes: One to many. Linear with histones and introns.
- 4. Ribosomes: 80s
- 5. No peptidoglycan
- a. Algae
- b. Protozoa
- c. fungus-Like protists
Species of algae
- Some are multicellular some are single cell
- Celluose makes up the cell walls
- Photosynthetic, producing O2 and other organic compound.
- (amoeba, paramecium, euglena)
- Single cell organisms
- Some absorb or ingest organic chemicals, some are photosynthetic.
- Motile via pseudopods, cilia or flagella
Kingdom of Fungi
- Fungi use organic chemicals for energy
- Chitin is foundin the cell walls
- A. Molds and mushrooms are multicellular fungi.
- B.Yeasts are unicellular fungi that contain carbohydrates in their cell walls in addition to chitin.
- Algae, mosses, ferns, trees and flowering plants (are not microscopic)
- Cell walls are composed of cellulosa
- 1. Helminths - multicellular animals. Many are parastic. Some life cylce stages are microscopic.
What leads to appearance of an emerging infectious disease?
- Global climate change
- Global human travel
- Humans move into previously uninhabited locations.
- West Nile Virus
- Flesh eating bacteria (A Streptococcus)
- Ebola Virus
What is infectious disease
When a pathogen overcomes the host's resistance.
- Cosist of DNA or RNA core
- Core is surrounded by a protein coat and maybe inclosed by a lipid envelope
- Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell.
- No plasma, no cytoplasm.
- No ribosomes
- No ATP production, very little metabolism.
- A protein disease ( med caw)
- Single protein molecule
- No genetic material
- No ATP produ.
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