Acid Base

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bpmcdaris
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14591
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Acid Base
Updated:
2010-04-15 18:54:24
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Acid Base
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Exam 6
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  1. Respiratory acidosis is indicated by?
    • pH: decreased
    • HCO3: increased
    • Pao2: decreased
    • Paco2: increased
    • K+: increased
  2. Respiratory alkalosis is indicated by?
    • pH: increased
    • HCO3: decreased
    • Pao2: normal
    • Paco2: decreased
    • K+: decreased
  3. Metabolic acidosis is indicated by?
    • pH: decreased
    • HCO3: decreased
    • Pao2: Normal
    • Paco2: Normal or decreased
    • K+: increased
  4. Metabolic alkalosis is indicated by?
    • pH: Increased
    • HCO3: Increased
    • Pao2: Normal
    • Paco2: Normal or increased
    • K+: Decreased
  5. A client w/ a 3 day hx of nausea and vomiting presents to the emergency department. The client is hypoventilating and has a RR of 6 breaths/min. The ECG monitor displays tachycardia, with a heart rate of 120 beats/min. Arterial blood gases are drawn and the nurse reviews the results, expecting to note which of the following?
    A. A decreased pH and an increased CO2
    B. A decreased pH and a decreased HCO3
    C. An increased pH with an increased HCO3
    D. An increased pH and a decreased CO2
    C. An increased pH with an increased HCO3
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. A client who is found unresponsive has ABG's drawn and the results indicate the following; pH is 7.12, Pco2 is 90 mm Hg, and HCO3 is 22 mEq/L. The nurse interprets the results as indicating which condition?
    A. Metabolic acidosis with compenstation
    B. Respiratory acidosis with compensation
    C. Metabolic acidosis without compensation
    D. Respiratory acidosis without compensation
    D. Respiratory acidosis without compensation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. A nurse plans care for a client with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, knowing that the client is most likely to experience what type of acid-base imbalance?
    A. Respiratory alkalosis
    B. Respiratory acidosis
    C. Metabolic acidosis
    D. Metabolic alkalosis
    B. Respiratory acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. A nurse reviews the blood gas results of a client with Guillain-Barre syndrome. The nurse analyzes the results and determines that the client is experiencing respiratory acidosis. Which of the following validates the nurse's findings?
    A. pH 7.25, Pco2 50 mm Hg
    B. pH 7.35, Pco2 40 mm Hg
    C. pH 7.50, Pco2 52 mm Hg
    D. pH 7.52, Pco2 28 mm Hg
    A. pH 7.25, Pco2 50 mm Hg
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. A nurse is caring for a client who is on a mechanical ventilator. Blood gas results indicate a pH of 7.50 and a Pco2 of 30 mm Hg. The nurse has determined that the client is experienceing respiratory alkalosis. Which laboratory value would most likely be noted in this condition?
    A. Magnesium level of 2.0 mg/dL
    B. Sodium level of 145 mEq/L
    C. Potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L
    D. Phosphorus level of 4.0 mg/dL
    C. Potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. A nurse reviews the arterial blood gas results of a client and notes the following: pH 7.45, Pco2 of 30 mm Hg, and HCO3 of 22 mEq/L. The nurse analyzes these results as indicating which condition?
    A. Respiratory alkalosis, compensated
    B. Respiratory acidosis, uncompensated
    C. Meabolic acidosis, compensated
    D. Metabolic alkalosis, uncompensated
    A. Respiratory alkalosis, compensated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. A client is scheduled for blood to be drawn from the radial artery for an arterial blood gas determination. Before the blood is drawn, an Allen's test is performed to determine the adequacy of the:
    A. Femoral circulation
    B. Ulnar circulation
    C. Carotid circulation
    D. Popliteal circulation
    B. Ulnar circulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. A nurse is caring for a client with a nasogastric tube that is attached to low suction. The nurse monitors the client, knowing that the client is at risk for which acid-base disorder?
    A. Respriatory alkalosis
    B. Respiratory acidosis
    C. Metabolic acidosis
    D. Metabolic alkalosis
    D. Metabolic alkalosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A nurse is caring for a client with an ileostomy understands that the client is most at risk for developing which acid-base disorder?
    A. Metabolic alkalosis
    B. Metabolic acidosis
    C. Respiratory alkalosis
    D. Respiratory acidosis
    B. Metabolic acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. A nurse is caring for a client with diabetic ketoacidosis and documenta that the client is experienceing Kussmaul's respirations. Based on this documentation, which of the following did the nurse observe?
    A. Respirations that cease for several seconds
    B. Respirations that are labored and increase in depth and rate
    C. Respirations that are regular but abnormally slow
    D. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate
    D. Respirations that are abnormally deep, regular, and increased in rate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Neurological Clinical Manifestations of Acidosis
    • Respiratory
    • Drowsiness
    • Disorientation
    • Dizziness
    • Headache
    • Coma

    • Metabolic
    • Drowsiness
    • Confusion
    • Headache
    • Coma
  16. Cardiovascular Clinical Manifestations of Acidosis
    • Respiratory
    • Decrease BP
    • Ventricular fibrillation (r/t hyperkalemia from compensation)
    • Warm, flushed skin (r/t peripheral vasodilation)

    • Metabolic
    • Decreased BP
    • Dysrhythmias (r/t hyperkalemia from compensation)
    • Warm, flushed skin (r/t peripheral vasodilation)
  17. Gastrointestinal Clinical Manifestations of Acidosis
    • Respiratory
    • No significant findings

    • Metabolic
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Abdominal pain
  18. Neuromuscular Clinical Manifestations of Acidosis
    • Respiratory
    • Seizures

    • Metabolic
    • No significant findings
  19. Respiratory Clinical Manifestations of Acidosis
    • Respiratory
    • Hypoventilation with hypoxia (lungs are unable to compensate when there is a respiratory problem)

    • Metabolic
    • Deep, rapid respirations (compensatory action by the lungs)
  20. Neuroloogical Clinical Manifestations of Alkalosis
    • Respiratory
    • Lethargy
    • Light-headedness
    • Confusion

    • Metabolic
    • Drowsiness
    • Dizziness
    • Nervousness
    • Confusion
  21. Cardiovascular Clinical Manifestations of Alkalosis
    • Respiratory
    • Tachycardia
    • Dysrhythmias (r/t hypokalemia from compensation)

    • Metabolic
    • Tachycardia
    • Dysrthythmias (r/t hypokalemia from compensation)
  22. Gastrointestinal Clinical Manifestations of Alkalosis
    • Respiratory
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Epigastric pain

    • Metabolic
    • Anorexia
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  23. Neuromuscular Clinical Manifestations of Alkalosis
    • Respiratory
    • Tetany
    • Numbness
    • Tingling of extremities
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Seizures

    • Metabolic
    • Tremors
    • Hypertonic muscles
    • Muscle cramps
    • Tetany
    • Tingling of fingers and toes
    • Seizures
  24. Respiratory Clinical Manifestations of Alkalosis
    • Respiratory
    • Hyperventilation (lungs are unable to compensate when there is a respiratory problem)

    • Metabolic
    • Hypoventilation (compenstatory action by the lungs)
  25. Causes of Respiratory Acidosis
    • Asthma
    • Atelectasis
    • Brain trauma
    • Bronchiectasis
    • Bronchitis
    • Central nervous system depressants
    • Emphysema
    • Hypoventilation
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Pneumonia
    • Pulmonary emboli
  26. Causes of Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Fever
    • Hyperventilation
    • Hypoxia
    • Hysteria
    • Overventilation by mechanical ventilators
    • Pain
  27. Causes of Metabolic Acidosis
    • Diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis
    • Excessive ingestion of acetylsalicylic acid (asprin)
    • High fat diet
    • Insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates
    • Malnutrition
    • Renal insufficiency or renal failure
    • Severe diarrhea
  28. Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis
    • Diuretics
    • Excessive vomiting or gastrointestinal suctioning
    • Hyperaldosteronism
    • Ingestion of and/or infusion of excess sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
    • Massive transfusion of whole blood
  29. ph?
    7.35-7.45
  30. Paco2?
    35-45 mm Hg
  31. HCO3?
    22-26 mEq/L
  32. Pao2?
    80-100 mm Hg

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