PoDN Ch 5 Reading

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kimboslice
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145910
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PoDN Ch 5 Reading
Updated:
2012-04-05 18:02:34
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politics developing nations
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PoDN Ch 5 Reading
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  1. OBJ of Culturalist Groups
    To use cultural separateness to seek to achieve autonomy in relation to centralized state. (ex. Sikhs, Tibetans)
  2. Culturalist Groups perceptions of state and society
    Aggregation of diverse groups with state structures dominated by one particular group
  3. Culturalist Groups perception of role of government
    To prevent the full flowering of diversity
  4. Culturalist Groups role in political process
    May use vehicle of political party if government permits; if not - constitutional methods are likely
  5. Culturalist Groups citizen participation
    Active participation of group members will be encouraged in pursuit of political goals
  6. Culturalist Groups tactics to achieve goals
    Any necessary means considered
  7. OBJ of Fundamentalist Groups
    To protect self-proclaimed groups of "religiously pure" against state attempts to belittle religion (for example, HAMAS, FIS)
  8. Fundamentalist Groups perceptions of state and society
    Society is dichotomized between believers and non-believers. State aims to extend its power to the cost of believers
  9. Fundamentalist Groups perception of role of government
    Regard as seeking to undermine religion's societal roles
  10. Fundamentalist Groups role in political process
    May fight elections if allowed. In addition, a wide range of other means may be employed to ahieve political ends
  11. Fundamentalist Groups citizen participation
    Individual interests seen as subordinate to interests of group
  12. Fundamentalist Groups tactics to ahieve goals
    Any necessary means considered
  13. OBJ of Community-oriented Group
    To direct community activities for enhancement of local groups' sekf-interest (ex. Basic Christian Communities, Latin American Indians)
  14. Community-oriented Groups perceptions of state and society
    Society comprises diverse interest groups. Local groups need to be aided so that self-interest can be protected and furthered
  15. Community-oriented Groups perception of role of government
    Seen as indifferent to plight of local communities
  16. Community-oriented Groups role in political process
    Formally uninvolved, but activists may ally with political parties judged to be "progressive"
  17. Community-oriented Groups citizen participation
    Popular participation essential to offset elite dominance
  18. Community-oriented Groups tactics to ahieve goals
    Lobbying of political elites and popular mobilization
  19. OBJ of Syncretistic Group
    To achieve higher political standing within national culture of diverse groups (ex. Napramas of Mozambique)
  20. Syncretistic Groups perceptions of state and society
    Society comprises diverse groups with one or several often dominating at state level
  21. Syncretistic Groups perception of role of government
    seen as hostile or indifferent
  22. Syncretistic Groups role in political process
    Will often remain outside formal political process and pursue goals via direct action, lobbying, negotiation with the state
  23. Syncretistic Groups citizen participation
    Individual interests seen as synonymous with community goals
  24. Syncretistic Groups tactics to achieve goals
    Lobbying of political elites and popular mobilization
  25. South Asian Ethno-Religious Conflicts
    • 1) Sri Lanka - Buddhist Sinhalese vs. Hindu Tamils
    • 2) India - Militant Hinduism
  26. East & South-East Asian Ethno-Religious Conflicts
    • 1) Thailand - Buddhist political party
    • 2) Indonesia & Philippines - ethnic and religious minority groups have fought for years
  27. African Ethno-Religious Conflicts
    • 1) Nigeria - Muslims vs. Christians, Ogonis vs. gov't
    • 2) Sudan - religious conflict
    • 3) Sierra Leone - religious conflict
    • 4) Liberia - religious conflict
    • 5) Uganda - religious conflict
    • 6) Democratic Republic of the Congo - religious conflict
  28. 3 parts of spiritual Religion
    Supernatural realities, sacred (holyness) and ultimacy
  29. What can material Religion do?
    Can motivate groups and individuals to act in pursuit of social or political groups
  30. George Weigel claims, what?
    That there is a global religious revitalization: an "unsecularization" of the world
  31. What does modernization have the ability to do?
    Undermine traditional value systems
  32. What has modernization lead to a diminishing of?
    A belief in secular ideologies of change, like socialism and communism
  33. What has turned people back to religion?
    Modernization
  34. Definition of religiuous fundamentalism
    A set of strategies by which beleaguered believers attempt to preserve their distinctive identity as a people or group in response to real or imagined attacks from non-believers
  35. What happened in 1974 in East Timor?
    100,000s of Timorese became Christians to differentiate themselves to Indonesians, who are 90% Muslim
  36. How does Bealey define ethnicity?
    the characteristic of belonging to an ethnic group involving identification with a people one sees as similar to ones self
  37. What did data compiled by Gurr and Haw show?
    That the # of ethnic conflicts grew 4x between 1950 and 1955 and 1985 and 1990 during the Cold War
  38. How long have ethnopolitical conflicts occurred?
    For half a century
  39. Has ethnoconflicts in developing countries increased or decreased since the Cold War?
    Neither!
  40. 4 Ethno-religious groups
    • 1) Culturalist
    • 2) Fundamentalist
    • 3) Community-orientated
    • 4) Suncretistic
  41. What do ethno-religious groups do?
    All put forth a message of hope and a program of action, seek to gain popular support to express and direct dissatisfaction with the status quo
  42. Who form culturalist groups and why?
    Formed by minorities who have particular religious/ethnic characteristics and are repressed by a domina group in control of both economic and political resources.
  43. Exampls of Culturalist groups
    East Timorese, Muslims in the philippines, India's Sikhs, Southern Sudanese Christian Peoples, Tibetan Buddhists in China, Muslim Palestinians of Israel's territories
  44. Who form syncretistic groups and why?
    Found among rural dwellers in several African and Latin American countries to defend themselves from the state.

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