Chapter 10

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Chapter 10
2012-04-05 19:31:37
Pulmonary Respiratory System

Pulmonary & Respiratory
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  1. Organs involved with pulmonology
    trachea, bronchi, lungs, and pleura
  2. alveol/o
    alveolus; air sac
  3. bronch/o
  4. bronchi/o
  5. coni/o
    dust, used to refer to particales inhaled into the lungs
  6. cyan/o
  7. lob/o
  8. mediastin/o
  9. ox/i
  10. pleur/o
  11. pneum/o
    lung, air
  12. pneumon/o
  13. pulmon/o
  14. spir/o
  15. thorac/o
  16. trache/o
    trachea, windpipe
  17. angi/o
  18. arteri/o
  19. atel/o
  20. carcin/o
  21. cardi/o
  22. cyt/o
  23. embol/o
  24. fibr/o
  25. hem/o
  26. orth/o
    straight, primarily used to refer to bone or skeleton terms
  27. py/o
  28. -algia
  29. -centesis
    puncture to withdraw fluid
  30. -dynia
  31. -ectasis
    dialted, expansion
  32. -genic
  33. -ole
  34. -osis
  35. -ectomy
    surgical removal
  36. -ostomy
    create a new opening
  37. -otomy
    cutting into
  38. -oxia
  39. -plasty
    surgical repair
  40. -pnea
  41. -ptysis
    spitting; means coughing up and spitting out of blood coming from lungs or bronchi
  42. -scope
    instrument for viewing
  43. -scope
    instrument for viewing
  44. -thorax
    chest; this suffix used to indicate presence of substance in chest
  45. dys-
    abnormal, labored
  46. endo-
  47. eu-
  48. alveolus
    thin-walled sacs at end of bronchioles; exchange of oxygen take place between air in alveoli and capillary blood supply surrounding them
  49. bronchus
    the bronchi are the two main divisions of trachea that carry air into each long; they subdivide into more narrow bronchi and eventually become the narrowest bronchioles
  50. bronchioles
    the narrowest airway tubes; carry air from bronchi to alveoli
  51. lobe
    each lung is subdivided into lobes; right lung has three lobes, left lung has two
  52. Mediastinum
    The mediastinum is the central region of thoracic cavity between the lungs; contains trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, lymph nodes and thymus gland
  53. pleura
    double layered membrane that forms protective sac around lungs
  54. parietal pleura
    outer layer of pleura, forms protective sac around lungs and lines thoracic cavity
  55. visceral pleura
    inner layer of pleura, covers lungs
  56. pleural cavity
    space formed by folded pleura
  57. trachea
    the tube that carries air from throat down into chest cavity, splits into two main bronchi, commonly called windpipe
  58. adult repiratory distress syndrome
    • (ARDS)
    • acute respiratory failure in adults characterized by tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, tachycardia, and hypoxia
  59. arterial blood gases
    • (ABG's)
    • laboratory test for levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide present in blood
  60. asphyxia, asphyxiation
    lack of oxygen that can lead to unconsciousness and death if not corrected immediately; some common causes are drowning, foreign body in respiratory tract, poisoning, and electric shock; also called suffocation
  61. aspirate
    inhaling fluid or foreign object into airways
  62. asthma
    disease caused by various conditions, such as allergies, and resulting in bronchospasm, excessive mucus production, inflammation, airway constriction, wheezing, and coughing
  63. atelectasis
    • atel/o = incomplete
    • -ectasis = dilation
    • condition in which lung tissue collapses, preventing respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  64. bronchodilator
    any medication that causes bronchi to dilate
  65. bronchogenic carcinoma
    malignant lung tumor that orginates in bronchi, often associated with a history of smoking
  66. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    • (CPR)
    • applying external compressions to rib cage to maintain blood flow and air movement in and out of lungs during cardiac and respiratory arrest.
  67. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • (COPD)
    • progressive, chronic, and usually irreversible condition in which air flow to and from lungs is decreased; patient can have severe dyspnea with exertion and cough; also called chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)
  68. croup
    acute viral infection in infants and children; symptoms include dyspnea and a characteristic harsh cough
  69. cystic fibrosis
    • (CF)
    • genetic condition that causes patient to produce very thick mucus resulting in severe congestion within lungs and digestive system. Life expectancy around 30 yrs. :-(
  70. emphysema
    pulmonary condition resulting from destruction of alveolar walls leading to overinflated alveoli; can occur as result of long-term heavy smoking or exposure to air pollution; characterized by dyspnea on exertion
  71. endotracheal intubation
    • (ET) "phone home" lol
    • placing tube through mouth and into trachea to maintain open airway and facilitate artificial ventilation
  72. hyperventilation
    to breath too quickly (tachypnea) and too deeply (hyperpnea)
  73. hypoventilation
    to breath too slowly (bradypnea) and too shallowly (hypopnea)
  74. hypoxia
    having insufficient amount of oxygen in body
  75. influenza
    • (flu) acute viral infection of airways; usually highly contagious; symptoms include chills, fever, body aches, and dry cough. Pt usually wants to just die. (why don't they mention throwing up? duh)
    • cold vs flu: cold has milder symptoms.
  76. phlegm
    thick mucus secreted by mucous membranes lining respiratory tract; phlegm is coughed through mouth is call sputum.
  77. pleural effusion
    abnormal presence of fluid of gas in pleural cavity; presence of this fluid can be detected by tapping chest (percussion) or listening with stethoscope (ausculation)
  78. pleurisy
    inflammation of pleura
  79. pneumonia
    acute inflammatory condition of lung, which can be caused by bacterial and viral infections, diseases, and chemicals; severe dyspnea and death can result with alveoli fill with fluid (pulmonary infiltrate)
  80. pneumothorax
    collection of air or gas in pleural cavity, which can result in collapse of lung
  81. pulmonary edema
    condition in which lung tissue retains excessive amount of fluid; results in dyspnea
  82. pulmonary embolism
    • (PE)
    • blood clot or air bubble in pulmonary artery or one or its branches; results in infarct of lung tissue
  83. purulent
    containing pus, as in purulent sputum
  84. rales
    abnormal "crackling" sound made during inhalation; caused by mucus or fluid in airways
  85. respiratory rate
  86. rhonchi
    whistling sound that can be heard during either inhalation or exhalation; caused by narrowing of bronchi as in asthma or infection; also called wheezing
  87. sputum
    mucus or phlegm coughed up and spit out from respiratory tract
  88. sudden infant death syndrome
    • (SIDS)
    • unexpected and unexplained death of apparently well infant; sleep apnea, airway spasms, and failure of nerves to stimulate diaphragm have been studied as possible causes
  89. sweat test
    diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis; children with this disease lose excessive amount of salt in their sweat
  90. tuberculosis
    • (TB)
    • infectious disease caused by tubercle bacillus; most commonly affects respiratory system and causes inflammation and calcification in lungs
  91. ventilator
    mechanical divice to assist patient to breathe
  92. ARDS
  93. CF
  94. CO2
  95. COPD
  96. TPR
    temperature, pulse, and respiration