Chapter 11

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Chapter 11
2012-04-05 23:48:51

Medical Term
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  1. gastrointestinal
    digestive system; respondsible for digesting the food we eat and absorbing the nutrient molecules.
  2. an/o
  3. appendic/o
    appendix, combining form
  4. append/o
  5. chol/e
  6. cholangi/o
    bile duct
  7. choledoch/o
    common bile duct
  8. col/o
  9. colon/o
  10. diverticul/o
  11. duoden/o
  12. enter/o
  13. esophag/o
  14. gastr/o
  15. hepat/o
  16. ile/o
  17. jejun/o
  18. lapar/o
  19. pancreat/o
  20. polyp/o
  21. proct/o
    rectum and anus
  22. rect/o
  23. sigmoid/o
    sigmoid colon
  24. lith/o
  25. -cele
  26. -iasis
    abnormal condition
  27. -pepsia
  28. -phagia
    eat, swallow
  29. -ptosis
  30. -tripsy
    surgical crushing
  31. poly-
  32. anus
    the distal opening of the digestive tract to outside of the body
  33. appendix
    a small puch attached to the cecum, serves no known purpose
  34. bile
    a substance produced by the liver and stored in gallbladder, transported to duedenum by the common bile duct; aids in fat digestion
  35. bile ducts
    a series of ducts to transport bile between liver, gallbladder, and duodenum
  36. common bile duct
    main duct that transports bile from liver or gallbladder to duodenum
  37. colon
    the colon receives undigested food from intestine; allows for water to be reabsorbed into body; what remains are called feces. divided into ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
  38. diverticulum
    small abnormal pouch that forms off intestinal or colon wall; can become inflamed and infected
  39. duodenum
    the first section of intestine; receives food from the stomach, digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and bile from the liver, final digestion of food and absorption of nutrients begins in duodenum
  40. -emesis
    to vomit
  41. intestine
    receives food from the stomach, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile; absorption of nutrients; consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
  42. esophagus
    the muscular tube that carries food from throat to stomach
  43. stomach
    muscular sac producing hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes, begins digestive process by mixing food received from esophagus with acid; watery mixture, called chyme, leaves stomach and enters duodenum
  44. chyme
    watery mixture in stomach resulting from digested food; leaves stomach and enters duodenum
  45. liver
    a complex abdominal organ, plays role in digestion by producing bile to aid in fat digestion
  46. ileum
    the third section of intestine; receives digested food from jejunum and completes process of digestion and nutrient absorption
  47. jejunum
    the second portion of intestine; receives digested foor from duodenum and continues process of digestion and nutrient absorption
  48. abdomen
    a body cavity that houses organs of digestion, reproduction, and excretion
  49. pancreas
    an organ that produces digestive enzymes; pancreatic duct carries these enzymes to duodenum where they aid in good digestion
  50. polyp
    small mushroom-shaped tumors that grow on mucous membranes of colon and extend into lumen of colon; can become cancerous
  51. rectum
    final segment of colon; receives feces from the sigmoid colon and stores it prior to elimination
  52. sigmoid colon
    an s-shaped colon; feces passes out of sigmoid colon and into rectum
  53. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in abdominal cavity
  54. barium enema
    • (BE)
    • x-ray examination of intestine and colon using barium as contrast medium; also know as lower GI series
  55. cirrhosis
    chronic liver disease
  56. crohn disease
    chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with mucous membrane ulcers; most often found in ileum
  57. dysentery
    acute intestinal condition with pain, diarrhea, and blood and mucus in stools; usually caused by bacterial or parasitic infection
  58. esophageal atresia
    congenital lack of the connection between esophagus and stomch; food cannot enter stomach
  59. esophageal varices
    varicose veins in esophagus; result in massive bleeding if rupture
  60. fecal occult blood test
    • FOBT
    • Clinical lab test for presence of small amounts of blood in feces, also called hemoccult test or stool guaiac test
  61. gastric bypass
    surgical treatment for obesity; portion of stomach is stapled off and bypassed so that it holds less food; also called stomach stapling
  62. gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • (GERD)
    • occurs when stomach acid backs up into esophagus
  63. Helicobacter pylori antibody test
    clinical lab test for presence of bacteria known to cause gastric ulcers
  64. hemorrhoids
    varicose veins in rectum
  65. ileus
    obstruction of intestine that occurs when muscular movements stop moving food or blockage prevents food from moving through digestive tract
  66. intussusception
    occurs when one section of intestine slips or telescopes into another section of intestine
  67. irritable bowel syndrome
    • (IBS)
    • disturbance in normal functioning of bowel characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea; often associated with stress; also called spastic colon
  68. jaundice
    yellow-colored skin and whites of eyes associated with liver disease
  69. melena
    very dark, tarry stools due to presence of blood
  70. nausea
    feeling of urge to vomit
  71. ova and parasites
    • (O&P)
    • clinical lab test for presence of parasites or their eggs in feces
  72. peptic ulcer disease
    • PUD
    • craterlike erosion occurring on mucous membrane of lower ewophagus, stomach and or duodenum; more dangerous if ulcer eats into blood vessel and becomes bleeding ulcer, or if ulcer eats through wall of stomach and becomes a perforated ulcer allowing stomach acid to escape into abdominal cavity
  73. total parenteral nutrition
    • TPN
    • Nutrient-complete solution given directly into bloodstream when person cannot eat by mouth
  74. ulcerative colitis
    chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by formation of ulcers on mucous membrane of colon
  75. upper gastrointestinal series
    x-ray examination of esophagus and stomach using barium as contrast medium; also known as barium swallow
  76. volvulus
    length of bowel that becomes twisted around itself