Chapter 12

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Chapter 12
2012-04-06 00:50:56
Urology Nephrology

Urology and Nephrology
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  1. balan/o
    glans penis
  2. cyst/o
  3. epididym/o
  4. glomerul/o
  5. lith/o
  6. nephr/o
  7. orchid/o
  8. orchi
  9. orch/o
  10. prostat/o
    prostate gland
  11. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  12. ren/o
  13. semin/i
  14. spermat/o
  15. sperm/o
  16. testicul/o
  17. ur/o
  18. ureter/o
  19. urethr/o
  20. urin/o
  21. vas/o
    vas deferens
  22. vesicul/o
    seminal vesicle
  23. albumin/o
  24. azot/o
    nitrogen waste
  25. bacteri/o
  26. corpor/o
  27. crypt/o
  28. genit/o
  29. glycos/o
    sugar, glucose
  30. hemat/o
  31. hem/o
  32. hydr/o
  33. noct/i
  34. olig/o
  35. py/o
  36. rect/o
  37. ven/o
  38. -cele
    hernia, protrusion
  39. -algia
  40. -cyte
  41. -emia
    blood condition
  42. -lysis
  43. -megaly
  44. -pexy
    surgical fixation
  45. -ptosis
  46. -rrhaphy
  47. -rrhea
    discharge, flow
  48. -sclerosis
    hardened condition
  49. -stenosis
  50. -tripsy
  51. -uria
    urine condition
  52. extra-
    outside of
  53. glans penis
    enlarged tip of the penis
  54. prepuce
  55. urinary bladder
    a muscular organ that stores urine produced by the kidneys; urine drains into bladder from ureters and exits bladder in urethra
  56. epididymes
    sits on surface of each testis; stores sperm as they are made by the testes
  57. stone
    stones form in many parts of body, usually formed from organic or inorganic salts
  58. kidney
    one kidney is located on either side of spine at lever of lower ribs; each consits of thousands of nephrons; glomerulus portion of each nephron filters wate products and excess water and electrolytes out of blood to produce urine; urine drains out of kidney into ureter and on to urinary bladder for storage
  59. testes
    the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testosterone; the two testes are suspended outside body in scrotum; as sperm are produced, they travel to epididymis for storage.
  60. -ostomy
    suffix meaning to create a surgical opening; describes the creation of new opening between two organs or between organ and external surface of body
  61. stoma
    new opening on surface of body
  62. prostate gland
    one of male reproductive glands found surrounding urethra at base of bladder; secretes milky fluid that makes up much of liquid portion of semen and serves to nourish sperm
  63. renal pelvis
    an area inside each kidney where urine collects as it is being made; each renal pelvis then drains into one of the ureters
  64. semen
    the fluid ejaculated from penis during intercourse; contains sperm and fluids secreted by reproductive glands: prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and bulbouethral gland
  65. sperm
    the male reproductive cells; produced in testes and ejaculated from body in semen; contain one-half of normal complement of chromosomes; when spem fertilizes ovum (which also has one-half set of chromosomes from mother), new baby is created with full set of chromosomes
  66. ureter
    a tube leading away from renal pelvis of each kidney, carries urine from kidney to urinary bladder
  67. urethra
    single urethra leads out of bladder and carries urine to outside of body
  68. meatus
    external opening
  69. -uria
    • suffix meaning condition of the urine
    • used w/ prefix of combining form to indicate something found in urine or associated w urination
  70. urine
    fluid produced by nephrons of each kidney as they filter wastes, water, and dissolved substances from blood
  71. vas deferens
    a long tube that carries sperm from epididymis to urethra; reproductive glands add fluids to sperm as they pass by, making semen
  72. seminal vesicles
    the male reproductive glands found behind bladder; adds fluids to sperm as they pass in vas deferens
  73. benign prostatic hypertrophy
    • (BPH)
    • noncancerous enlargement of prostate gland; condition places pressure on urethra and narrows it resulting in frequency, urgency, and nocturia; common in males 50+
  74. calculus
    • another word for stone
    • term for "stone formed within organ"; most are formed from mineral salts; commonly found in kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, or urethra
  75. chlamydia
    bacterial sexually transmitted disease; causes inflammation of urethra of males or cervix of females with purulent discharge
  76. circumcision
    surgical removal of prepuce or foreskin from glans penis; commonly preformed on newborn male at request of parents; primary reason is for ease of hygiene; also a ritual procticed in some religions
  77. clean catch specimen
    • (CC)
    • procedure for obtaining urine sample after cleaning off urethral meatus and catching urin in midstream (halfway through urination process) to minimize contamination from skin
  78. digital rectal exam
    • (DRE)
    • direct examination for presence of enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating prostate gland with fingers (digital) through wall of rectum
  79. erectile dysfunction
    • (ED)
    • inability to achieve erection of penis for coitus; also called impotence
  80. ESWL
    treatment procedure for urinary system stones; utilizes ultrasound waves to break up stones; process is noninvasive, meaning it does not require surgery
  81. frequency
    condition of feeling urge to urinate more often than normal but without increase in total daily volume of urin; can indicate inflammation of bladder or urethra or benign prostatic hypertrophy
  82. genital herpes
    highly infectious viral sexually transmitted disease; causes blister like lesions on penis of males or cervix and vagina of females
  83. gonorrhea
    bacterial sexually transmitted disease; infects mucous membranes and can spread thoughout entire genitourinary system; often does not cause many syptoms until widespread
  84. hemodialysis
    • (HD)
    • treatment for renal failure using artificial kidney machine to filter waste from blood
  85. hesitancy
    state of difficulty initating flow or urine; often symptom of blockage along urethra, such as caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy
  86. hydrocele
    accumulation of fluid within scrotum
  87. peritoneal dialysis
    artificial means to remove waste substances from body by placing warm, chemically balanced solutions into peritoneal cavity; treatment for renal failure
  88. phimosis
    narrowing of prepuce over glans penis; can cause difficulty with urination and infection; treatment is circumcision
  89. polycystic kidney disease
    • (PKD)
    • inherited kidney disease characterized by presence of multiple cysts throughout kidney tissue; eventually destroys kidneys and results in kidney failure
  90. prostatic cancer
    common and slow-growing cancer of prostate gland occurring in males over age 50; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to assist in early detection of this disease
  91. renal failure
    inability of kidneys to filter wastes from blood and/or produce urine; treatment of severe renal failure is dialysis or renal transplant
  92. renal transplant
    replacement of diseased kidney by donor kidney
  93. semen analysis
    evaluation of semen for fertility; sperm in semen analyzed for number, swimming strength, and shape; procedure would also be used to determine whether vasectomy has been successful
  94. sexually transmitted disease
    • (STD)
    • contagious disease acquired through sexual contact; formerly referred to as vernereal disease (VD)
  95. sterility
    inability to produce children; in males, usually due to problem with sperm production, such as aspermia or oligospermia; also called infertility
  96. syphilis
    bacterial sexually transmitted disease; begins as localized ulcer at point of infection; chronic disease that spreads through lymph nodes to nervous system after years, causing death
  97. testicular cancer
    cancer of one or both testicles; commonly seen in young men or boys
  98. transurethral resection
    surgical removal of prostate gland tissue by inserting device called resectoscope through urethra and removing prostate tissue
  99. trichomoniasis
    protozoan sexually transmitted disease; causes inflammation of genitourinary tract in both men and women
  100. undescended testicle
    congential anomaly involving failure of one or both of testes to descend into scrotal sac before birth; surgical procedure called orchiopexy can be required to bring testes down into scrotum permanently; also called cryptorchism
  101. urgency
    force or impluse of needing to urinate immediately
  102. urinalysis
    • (U/A, UA)
    • laboratory test that consists of physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine
  103. urinary catheterization
    • (cath)
    • insertion of flexible tube, catheter, into urinary bladder through urethra; used to withdraw urine or insert dye
  104. urinary incontinence
    involuntary urination; also called enuresis
  105. urinary tract infection
    infection of urethra and/or urinary bladder
  106. urine culture & sensitivity
    • (C&S)
    • diagnostic lab procedure that identifies bacterial infection of urinary system and determines best antibiotic to treat; involves growing bacteria in culture medium and testing different antibiotics on it
  107. varicocele
    development of varicose veins of veins leading to testes in scrotum
  108. ESWL
    extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
  109. STD
    sexually transmitted disease
  110. U/A, UA
  111. UTI
    urinary tract infection