Psychology of Crime

Card Set Information

Psychology of Crime
2009-11-23 09:37:36
psychology crime forensic

Psychology of Crime
Show Answers:

  1. anomie
    a sense of alienation or meaninglessness
  2. antisocial personality disorder
    a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others
  3. biological theories of crime
    an explanation for the causes of criminal behavior that invokes heredity and constitutional characteristics of the lawbreaker
  4. classical conditioning
    a procedure in which one learns to associate a new response with a stimulus
  5. classical school of criminology
    the point of view that evolved in the 1700s and 1800s, emphasizing the role of free will and cost/benefit analysis in determining crimial behavior
  6. concordance rate
    the extent to similiarity in a behavior or characteristic between two twins
  7. conditioned stimulus
    an act that, through association, comes to elicit a learned response
  8. containment theory
    the proposition that societal pressure controls the rate of change
  9. control theory
    the proposition that people will act in an antisocial way unless they are prevented from doing so
  10. criminology
    the study of crime and the criminal behavior
  11. differential association reinforcement theory
    a learning theory approach that asserts that criminal behavior is the result of socialization into a system of values that is conducive to violations of the law
  12. dizygotic twins
    fraternal twins
  13. ecological theorists
    a group of criminologists who believed that crime was caused by a combination of social, environmental, and cultural factors
  14. executive function
    the cognitive ability to plan and regulate behavior carefully
  15. extroversion
    the personality cluster characterized by outgoing orientation, enthusiasm, and optimism
  16. focal concerns
    a theory that relates the criminal activies of lower-class gangs to their need to achieve, through the simplest possible means, those ends that are most culturally valued
  17. learning theory
    a form of criminological thgeory that emphasizes how specific criminal behaviors are learned directly from reinforcement and modeling influences
  18. monozygotic twins
    identical twins
  19. neuroticism
    a major dimension of personality involving the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, anger, and depression, often accompanied by distressed thinking and behavior
  20. operant learning
    a form of learning in which the consequences of a behavior influence the likelihood of its being performed in th future
  21. postivist school of criminology
    a school of thought characterized by the view that criminal behavior by a person was determined, rather than the product of free will
  22. primary deviance
    behavior that violates a law or norm for socially acceptable conduct
  23. psychological theories of crime
    the approach to explaining criminal behavior that relies on factors within the person, such as motivation, ability level, and aspirations
  24. psychopathy
    a long-term pattern of unsocialized or criminal behavior by a person who feels no guily about such conduct
  25. psychoticism
    a major element in Eysenck's theory of personality, characterized by insensitivity, trouble-making, and lack of empathy
  26. racial profiling
    the police practice of using race as a factor in determining actions such as traffic stops, arrests, and questioning of suspects
  27. rational choice theory
    the theory that. if the reasons for commiting a crime outweigh the reasons for not committing it, the likelihood of the crime being committed increases
  28. rational crime theory
    the theory that some illegal behavior "make sense" because of the reward expected and the unlikelihood of detection
  29. reality principle
    the ego's task of reaching rational compromises between the instincts of the id and the moral demands of the superego
  30. secondary deviance
    a deviant identity created or intensified in a person through the use of official labels or legal form sanctions
  31. social labeling theory
    the theory that the stignma of being branded deviant by society can influence an individual's belief about himself or herself
  32. social learning theory
    a theory that acknowledges the importance of direct reinforcement for developing new behaviors but gives more importance to cognitive factors and to observational or vicarious learning
  33. social-psychologucal theory of crime
    the theory that proposes that criminal behavior is learned through social interaction
  34. sociological theories of crime
  35. stimulation-seeking theory
    the theory that psychopathic behavior is due to individuals' attempt to raise their sensory and arrousal experiences to an optimal level through repeated thrill-seeking and risk-taking
  36. structural explanations
    a sociological theory of crime that emphasizes that individuals may have similar interests and motivations but different opportunities
  37. subcultural explanations
    a sociological theory of crime that emphasizes class differences in values, and their subsequent impact on the likelihood of criminal behavior
  38. unconditioned stimulus
    an original stimulus, not associated with a new new response
  39. vicarioous learning
    learning by observing the actions of another person and their outcomes