Bio Ch.8

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Bio Ch.8
2010-04-15 03:38:30
bio test

Chapter 8
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  1. How do you form proteins?
    DNA then RNA then proteins
  2. Importance of nucleotide sequence in DNA
    4 nucleotide
  3. Difference between DNA and RNA
    DNA double stranded RNA single stranded
  4. Nucleotide bases
  5. Sugar present in nucleotide
    DNA=deoxyribose RNA=ribose
  6. Proteins are comprised (made up) of what?
    amino acids (20)
  7. What is the role of RNA in making a protein?
    bluepring, order and which amino acids join together.
  8. Transcription
    DNA to RNA
  9. Translation
    RNA to protein
  10. Where does transcription occur?
  11. What is the role of RNA polymerase?
    Adds correct base to template of DNA.
  12. What is a promoter?
    distinct nucleotide sequence. transcription
  13. Where does trasnlation occur?
  14. What type of RNA carries the instruction (blueprint) to form a protein?
  15. mRNA
  16. tRNA
  17. What is a codon?
    sequences of mRNA
  18. What is an anticodon? Where is it found?
    3 nucleotides at the base of tRNA
  19. What is the function of tRNA?
    carries one specific amino acid
  20. Can mutations have an effect on proteins? If so what kind?
    Yes, big little or none.
  21. Neutral or silent mutation
    no effect
  22. What makes a liver cell different than a brain cell?
    liver=liver enzyme protein. brain=neurotransmitter proteins
  23. What does it mean when a cell controls gene expression?
    It makes the types of proteins that a certain cell needs.
  24. Role of Promoter?
    turns gene on in appropriate cell types
  25. Activator proteins
    Start transcription
  26. Repressor proteins
    Block/stop transcription
  27. FDA: Basic research
    seeks to answer questions that will have questions for which there is no profit motive or direct commercial application
  28. Applied Research
    seeks to answer question that will have an immediate and profitable application
  29. Selective breeding vs. genetic engineering
    affected foods/allow modification
  30. transgenic organisms
    moving genes from one organism to another
  31. Genetically modified organisms
    transgenic organisms
  32. GM: tomato example
    slow ripining
  33. GM: rice example
    Golden rice with Vitamin A beta carotene
  34. GM:corn example
    bug resistent
  35. GM: soybean example
    herbicide resistance, weed killer
  36. Gene therapy
    replacing genes in a human with a normal one to sure a disease or disorger
  37. Somatic cell gene therapy
    in individual body cells in affected tissues
  38. Germ Line gene therapy
    in embryos/experimental stages
  39. SCID example
    "bubble boy" gene in bone marrow for immune system
  40. cloning
    making entire organisms using genetic engineering
  41. Dolly
    First clone, sheep
  42. Proccess of cloning
    take mammory gland cells and fuse with egg
  43. Cloning of specific cells or tissues
    Pancreatic cells produce insulin
  44. Stem cells
    cells that can be induced to turn into every type of cell in the human body
  45. location of stem cells
  46. In Vito fertilization
    process used for couples who cant concieve a baby
  47. embryonic stem cell lines
    come from 8 cell embyro, manipulated in the lab to continue growing as a seperate cell in a flask
  48. totipotent
    able to become like any other cell (stem cell)