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How do you form proteins?
DNA then RNA then proteins
Importance of nucleotide sequence in DNA
Difference between DNA and RNA
DNA double stranded RNA single stranded
DNA= ATCG RNA=AUCG
Sugar present in nucleotide
Proteins are comprised (made up) of what?
amino acids (20)
What is the role of RNA in making a protein?
bluepring, order and which amino acids join together.
DNA to RNA
RNA to protein
Where does transcription occur?
What is the role of RNA polymerase?
Adds correct base to template of DNA.
What is a promoter?
distinct nucleotide sequence. transcription
Where does trasnlation occur?
What type of RNA carries the instruction (blueprint) to form a protein?
What is a codon?
sequences of mRNA
What is an anticodon? Where is it found?
3 nucleotides at the base of tRNA
What is the function of tRNA?
carries one specific amino acid
Can mutations have an effect on proteins? If so what kind?
Yes, big little or none.
Neutral or silent mutation
What makes a liver cell different than a brain cell?
liver=liver enzyme protein. brain=neurotransmitter proteins
What does it mean when a cell controls gene expression?
It makes the types of proteins that a certain cell needs.
Role of Promoter?
turns gene on in appropriate cell types
FDA: Basic research
seeks to answer questions that will have questions for which there is no profit motive or direct commercial application
seeks to answer question that will have an immediate and profitable application
Selective breeding vs. genetic engineering
affected foods/allow modification
moving genes from one organism to another
Genetically modified organisms
GM: tomato example
GM: rice example
Golden rice with Vitamin A beta carotene
GM: soybean example
herbicide resistance, weed killer
replacing genes in a human with a normal one to sure a disease or disorger
Somatic cell gene therapy
in individual body cells in affected tissues
Germ Line gene therapy
in embryos/experimental stages
"bubble boy" gene in bone marrow for immune system
making entire organisms using genetic engineering
First clone, sheep
Proccess of cloning
take mammory gland cells and fuse with egg
Cloning of specific cells or tissues
Pancreatic cells produce insulin
cells that can be induced to turn into every type of cell in the human body
location of stem cells
In Vito fertilization
process used for couples who cant concieve a baby
embryonic stem cell lines
come from 8 cell embyro, manipulated in the lab to continue growing as a seperate cell in a flask
able to become like any other cell (stem cell)