Patho chapter 1

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tville01
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146015
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Patho chapter 1
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2012-04-06 14:28:55
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Patho chapter
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Patho chapter 1
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  1. The maintenance of a stable internal enviorment
    Homeostasis
  2. Negative feedback mechanisms _____
    Positive feedback mechanismd ______
    • stabalize
    • stimulate
  3. Deviation from normal state of health
    Disease
  4. Organ or systemic level
    Cellular level
    • Gross
    • Microscopic
  5. Decrease in cell size
    Caused by decreased work load
    Limb in a cast
    Atrophy
  6. Increase in cell size
    Caused by extra work load
    Prolonged Hypertension, body builder muscle
    Hypertrophy
  7. Muscles that have terminal cells that do not undergo mitosis
    Skeletal
  8. Increased number of cells from mitosis
    Caused by compensatory hyperplasia
    Liver regeneration, tumor formation, endometrium lining
    Hyperplasia
  9. Conversion of normal tissue into abnormal form(replaces one mature cell with another)
    Follows chronic stress or injury
    Smokers bronchial cilia chages, adaptive mechanisms
    Metaplasia
  10. Called Atypical Hyperplasia
    abnormal changes in mature cells
    larger nuclei
    Breast biopsy
    dysplasia
  11. Cells that are undifferentiated, vary in nuclei and structure
    Basis for tumor grading
    Anaplasia
  12. New growth
    Tumor
    Neoplasm
  13. Cancer refers to _____ neoplasm
    malignant
  14. 3 ways a cell can be injured?
    • Deficiency
    • Trauma
    • Intoxication
  15. Decreased blood supply to cells
    Results in low O2
    Single most common cellular injury
    Ischemia(Hypoxic Injury)
  16. Examples of physical agents that cause cellular trauma
    • Hypothermia
    • Hyperthermia
    • Radiation
    • Mechanical Pressure
    • Microbiologic Injury
  17. Extreme cold
    ice crystals form in cells cytoplasm
    frostbite
    Hypothermia
  18. Extreme heat
    Disrupts and coagulates proteins
    Burns
    Hyperthermia
  19. Disrupts nucleic acid, especially DNA
    Leukemia from X-rays
    radiation
  20. Pressure applied to body surface
    mechanical pressure
  21. Invasion and multiplication of a pathogen
    Infection
  22. Caused by bacterial or viral infection
    microbiological injury
  23. What causes physical damage by releasing potent enzymes that break up the host CT?
    Bacteria
  24. What multiply's within the cell, causes cell membranes to rupture, which then releases them to infect nearby cells?
    Virus
  25. Produced by microorganism such as bacteria during infection
    Biological toxins
  26. Cell programmed death
    Apoptosis
  27. Group of cells in the body die
    Infarction, gangrene
    Necrosis
  28. Area of dead cells due to lack of O2(ischemia)
    infarction
  29. Area of necrotic tissue that was invaded by bacteria
    gangrene
  30. Cause of a disease
    Etiology
  31. Largest category of etiology
    Genes and development are normal, other factors produce disease
    TB, AIDS, Emphysema
    Acquired Disease
  32. Unkown cause of disease
    Idiopathic
  33. Objecective evidence of a disease
    Can be seen or measured
    sign
  34. Subjective evidence of disease
    Felt by patient
    Symptom
  35. Collection of signs and symptoms
    syndrome
  36. Scientific method used to determine disease
    physical exam, history, and tests
    Diagnosis
  37. Secondary changes resulting from primary disease
    complications
  38. Long term effects of a disease
    Sequela
  39. Disease acquired from a health care facility
    Noscomial
  40. When a treatment, error, or procedure cause a disease
    Iatrogenic
  41. Tendencies that promte disease development in an individual
    predisposing factors
  42. Development of a disease, sequence of events
    pathogenesis
  43. short-term illness
    Develops quickly
    Acute
  44. Develops gradually and persists over time
    Chronic
  45. Manifestation of a disease subside
    Remissions
  46. Manifestation of a disease increase
    Exacerbations
  47. Condition that triggers an acute episode
    precipitating factors
  48. Study of disease pattern or occurance
    epidemiology
  49. Which of the following adaptive changes is considered to be the most dangerous in regards to malignant changes?
    A. atrophy
    B. metaplasia
    C. hypertrophy
    D. dysplasia
    D. dysplasia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which of the following examples are an example of hyperplasia?
    1. increase in the size of a trained athletes heart
    2. thickening in the gallbladder walls in response to gallstones
    3. calluses on a laborer's hands
    4. larger prostate with age
    3 and 4
  51. What term describes failure of cells to develop specilized features?
    A. dysplasia
    B. neoplasia
    C. anaplasia
    D. hyperplasia
    C. anaplasia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. A disease that indicates a short-term illness that develops very quickly with marked signs
    A. latent
    B. acute
    C. chronic
    D. fatal
    B. acute
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Collection of signs and symptoms, often affecting more than one organ, usually occur together in response to a certain condition
    A. diagnosis
    B. manifestation
    C. syndrome
    D. exacerbation
    C. syndrome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. Unwanted outcomes of a primary condition, such as paralysis following recovery from a stroke
    A. complications
    B. exacerbations
    C. sequela
    D. predisposing factors
    C. sequela
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What are the 4 types of etiology?
    • Genetic
    • Congenital
    • Aquired
    • Idiopathic
  56. What are the 3 types of hyperplasia with examples?
    • compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, liver
    • hormonal- endometrium, increased by estrogen also
    • pathological- abnormal proliferation, tumor
  57. What cells can be transformed into malignant cells?
    dysplasia
  58. normal gene mutates
    color blindness, sickle cell anemia, hemophhilia
    genetic disease
  59. birth defects
    congenital disease

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