Patho Chapter 2

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tville01
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146066
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Patho Chapter 2
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2012-04-11 10:38:15
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Patho Chapter
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Patho Chapter 2
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  1. Inflammation
    nonspecific response to tissue injury
  2. Inflammation occurs only in _______ tissue
    living
  3. 3 causes of inflammation
    • trauma
    • irritant
    • pathogenic orgamisms
  4. 2 types of inflammation
    • acute
    • chronic
  5. Cardinal signs of inflammation in order of occurence
    • Redness
    • Heat
    • Swelling
    • Pain
    • Loss of function/Altered function
  6. Tissue injury causes immediate ________ of the arterioles and is the body's first response to injury.
    Vasoconstriction
  7. After vasoconstriction of the arterioles, mast cells and platelets release _____ _______ into interstital fluid and blood.
    chemical mediators
  8. What do chemical mediators affect?
    vessels and nerves
  9. What happens as a result of chemical mediators?
    • vasodilation
    • hyperemia(heat &redness)
  10. first phagocytic cells to arrive at injury site?
    neutrophils
  11. response to bacterial infection
    large number of leukocytes
    leukocytosis
  12. Normal range of WBC?
    4,500-10,500 mm3
  13. inflammation with pus formation
    suppurative inflammation
  14. Occurs around hair folllicle
    caused by Staphyloccus aureus
    tender, dome-shaped
    boil
  15. local pocket of pus in solid tissue
    abscess
  16. swelling of eyelid glands
    stye
  17. What WBC is increased in allergic reactions
    eosinophils
  18. WBC count
    diagnostic test
    CBC
  19. ESR (elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
    • nonspecific diagnostic test
    • ^ plasma proteins=^RBC
  20. CRP (elevated serum C-reactive protein)
    • diagnostic test
    • protein made by liver that is increased after inflammatory stimulus
  21. special form of chronic inflammation that is not preceded by acute inflammation
    granuloma formation
  22. Which exudate(pus) has more lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages?
    A. chronic
    B. acute
    A. chronic
  23. Healing process that occurs with minimal damage
    Damaged cells recover and tissue returns to normal
    ie, sunburn
    resolution
  24. Which cells secrete histamine? Choose 2
    A.neutraphils
    B.basophils
    C.mast cells
    D.macrophages
    basophils and mast cells
  25. Which cells are phagocytoic?
    • neutrophils
    • macrophages
    • monocytes
  26. Movement of leukocytes into interstitial space
    diapedesis
  27. Bands of scar tissue between 2 normally seperate surfaces
    adhesion
  28. What type of cells becomes a macrophage once it has migrated into tissue?
    monocyte
  29. What are the first cells to migrate to a site after injury?
    neutrophils
  30. What type of cell is prevalent in allergic response?
    eosinophil
  31. What is the term for hypertrophic scar?
    keloid
  32. What cells are prevalent in chronic inflammation?
    1. fibroblasts
    2. macrophages
    3. neutrophils
    4. lymphocytes
    • fibroblasts
    • macrophages
    • lymphocytes
  33. What is the second event in the vascular response of inflammation?
    vasodilation
  34. What would be elevated during an acute inflammation of a large area?
    1.neutrophils
    2. ESR
    3. body temp
    4. platelet count
    5. C-reactive protein level
    • neutrophils
    • ESR
    • body temp
    • C-reactive protein level
  35. Which of the following could stimulate inflammation?
    1.fracture
    2. heart attack
    3. throat infection
    4. cat scratch
    5. superficial burn
    All of the above
  36. The body's local response to tissue injury?
    inflammation
  37. A protein, produced by fibroblasts, that is the basic component of scar tissue and provides strength for the new repair
    collagen
  38. The process by which leukocytes are attracted y chemical mediators at the site of the injury
    chemotaxis
  39. Cells lost through injury must be replaced by mitosis
    Complete return of normal structure and function
    Accelerated mitotic rate to replace lost tissue
    regeneration
  40. Which tissue and muscle cannot reproduce by mitosis?
    • Nervous tissue
    • cardiac muscle
    • skeletal muscle
  41. When cells are destroyed and cannot be reproduced, nearby cells hypertrophy to compensate. The loss of permanent tissue is followed by
    scarring
  42. Most important cells during reconstructive phase of wound healing
    fibroblasts
  43. What do fibroblasts synthesize and secrete
    basic component of scar tissue
    collagen
  44. When CT fibers attach to nearby tissue during healing
    adhesions
  45. Hard, raised scar tissue
    keloid
  46. What type of healing:
    Repair by scar or fibrous tissue
    blood clot
    inflammatory response
    Repair begins as tissue grows inward from surrounding healthy CT
    Granulation tissue
    Replacement
  47. Temporary makeshift structure
    CT rich in macrophages and fibroblasts
    highly vascular, new capillaries form from endothelial cells
    granulation tissue

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