Chapter 13.txt

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Chapter 13.txt
2012-04-06 11:06:57
Biology 101 Chapter 13 DNA

Biology 101 Chapter 13, DNA
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  1. What is the sugar in DNA?
  2. What is the phosphate group?
  3. What are the nutrogen containing base?
    A G T C
  4. What are purines?
    A G
  5. What are Pyrimidines?
  6. What are the three things that make up DNA?
    Sugar, Phosphate and Nitrogen
  7. Chargaffs Rule is what?
    The amount of A= T The amount of G= C The amount of purines (A+G) = pyrumdines
  8. Who discovered the helix?
    Roslind Franklin
  9. Linus Pauling did what for DNA?
    Built 3-d models of possible structures
  10. What did watson and Crick do for DNA?
    Combined all previous knowledge to make model of DNA
  11. What are the 3 different works of DNA that Watson and Crick combine?
    Double Helix (from Franklins work), Antiparallel (from models) and exposure
  12. What are double stranded structure of DNA?
    Sugar phosphate backbone on the outsides of the double helix, a sugar of one nucleotide bonded to phosphate of nest with phosphodiester bonds. Complementary base pairing on the inside of the double helix.
  13. Sugar phosphate backbone is comprised of what?
    On the outside of the double helix. sugar of one nucleotide bonded to phosphate of the next
  14. What types of bonds bond the nucleotide to the phosphate?
    Phosphodiester bonds (covalent)
  15. What are alternatives to the backbone?
    Sugar phosphate s p s p
  16. Complementary base pairing are what?
    On the inside of the double helix. One base is covalently bonded to each sugar.
  17. In complementary base pairing what type of bond bonds the sugar?
    Hydrogen Bonds
  18. Ghargaff's rule is what?
    Each base pair has 1 purine and 1 pryimidine.
  19. A always pairs with what?
    T with 2 hydrogen bonding sites
  20. G always pairs with what?
    C with 3 hydrogen bonding sites
  21. What is the uniform diameter?
    Length of at cg is 2 nanometers
  22. What are antiparalle Stands?
    direction determined by sugar phosphate bonds
  23. Phosphate bonds to its nucleotide on what?
    5' carbon of sugar
  24. Phosphate bonds to next nucleotide with phosphodiester bond on what?
    3' carbon of the next sugar
  25. Ends of the strands differ how?
    On one end of strand a 5' phosphate on the other end a 3' hydroxyl
  26. What happens in antiparallel?
    2 Bakcbones run in oppostite directions
  27. What is base exposure?
    Base pairs exposed in major and minor grooves
  28. What are the functions of DNA.
    Storage Mutation Replication Expresssion
  29. What does storage of DNA
    Millions of nucleotides per DNA moelcule store genetic information
  30. What does mutation of DNA do?
    Change in nucleotide sequence Change in information happens randomly
  31. What does replication do in DNA?
    DNA sequence copied to pass information to next generation
  32. What does expresssion of DNA do?
    DNA sequence codes for amino acid sequence in proteins that express phenotype
  33. What are the two steps in DNA replication
    Double helix is unwound and unzipped 2 New nucleotides added by semiconservative replication
  34. What is the backbone of DNA?
    Sugar and Phosphate
  35. What is the origin of replication?
    Site on chromosome where replication starts, one chromosome may have several orgins
  36. Replication complex is?
    Group of proteins enzymes that carry out replication
  37. What does the helicase do?
    Unwinds DNA double helix and unzips two strands
  38. What does the primase do?
    Pairs RNA primer to 3' end of template strand
  39. What is DNA polymerase III do?
    Adds new bases to template 3' to 5'/
  40. How is the lagging strand replicated?
    The helicase unwinds DNA double helix and unzips two strands. The primase adds an RNA primer to template near replication form. The DNA polymerase III adds new bases to template 3' to 5'. DNA polymerase I removes primer and replaces with DNA. DNA ligase connects separate segments.
  41. What does the Helicase do in lagging strand replication?
    Unwinds DNA double helix and unzips two strands
  42. What does Primase do in lagging strand replication?
    Adds an RNA primer to template near replication fork
  43. What does DNA polymerase III does what in laggin strand replication?
    Adds new bases to template on the 3' to 5'
  44. What does DNA polymerase I do in lagging strand replication?
    Removed primer and replaces with DNA
  45. What does DNA ligase do in lagging strand replication?
    Connects separate segments.
  46. What are telomeres?
    Chromosomes ends in useless repetitive sequence
  47. What is telomerase?
    Some cells use telomerase to create a new RNA template and replace the telomere.
  48. What are some examples of telomerase?
    Stem Cells Gamete Producing Cells Cancer Cells
  49. What are some causes of DNA errors?
    During replication, damage to exising DNA and from UV or Chemicals
  50. What are the three repair mechanisms?
    Proofreading, Mismatch repair, and excision repair
  51. What does proofreading do?
    Recognizes and removes wrong base pair when it is placed
  52. What does mismatch repair do?
    Removed wrong base pair missed in proofreading, happens immediately after replication
  53. What does excision repair do?
    Repairs damage causes later by environment
  54. PCR stands for what?
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
  55. what does PCR do?
    Amplifies makes many copies of DNA sequences
  56. What are some uses of PCR?
    Research labs medical forensics
  57. what does DNA need?
    DNA of interest primer that matches first few bases of each endcorrect pH and salt concentration
  58. Process of PCR?
    Heat denatures DNA and seperates into two strands. Then cooled primers attach to reee ends warmed DNA polymerase copies then repeats.