There are ions absorbed from the intestine or released as by-products of cellular metabolism. They are required for vital functions of the body. Examples: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Bicarbonate, Phosphate, sulfate
What is hemostasis?
The stoppage of bleeding
What triggers a blood vessel spasm?
Pain receptors, platlet release, serotonin
What is a blood vessel spasm?
It is when the smooth muscle in the vessel contracts, vasoconstiction, to slow blood flow in response to bleeding.
What triggers platlet plug formation?
Exposure of platelets to collagen
What triggers blood coagulation?
Cellular damage and blood contact with foreign surfaces
What is the extrinsic clotting mechanism?
A chemical outside fo the blood vessel triggers blood coagulation.
Triggered by tissue thromboplastin.
This is a positive feedback mechanism.
What is the intrinsic clotting mechanism?
It is triggered with a chemical inside the blood vessel activates blood coagulation. It is triggered by Hageman factor XII and when blood contacts a foreign surface.
What chemical digests blood clots?
What is the term for an abnormal blood clot?
Thrombus - abnormal
What is an embolus?
A blood clot that moves though the blood vessels.
What are some of the ways the body prevents coagulation?
The smooth lining of blood vessels
Fibrin will absorb the thrombin to prevent the clotting reaction from spreading
Anti-thrombin inactivates additional thrombin by blocking its action on fibrinogen
Basophils and mast cells secrete heparin (anti-coagulant)
clumping of red blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and an antigen
a chemical that stimulates cells to produce antibodies
a protein that reacts agasinst a specific antigen
How is a person's ABO blood group determined?
Blood type is based on the presence or absence of two major antigens on red blood cell membranes
What is RH blood group named for?
It was named for the rhesus monkey
What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
It is a hemolytic disease of the newborn that is due to the Rh factor differences in mother and child.
What is the difference between Rh+ and Rh- blood?
Rh+ has the presence of antigen D or other Rh antigens on the red blood cell membranes. Rh- blood lacks these antigens.