Chapter 14

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  1. What percentage of blood volume does the plasma comprise?
  2. What percentage of blood volume do the formed elements comprise?
  3. What is the Buffy coat?
    The layer that settles in between the plasma and red blood cells. It consists of white blood cells and platlets.
  4. Blood cells originate in red marrow from ____________ or __________ stem cells.
    • hemocytoblasts
    • hematopoietic
  5. Are red blood cells biconvex or biconcave discs?
  6. What hormone will influence hematopoietic stem cells to differeniate into erythroblasts?
  7. What hormone will influence hematopoietic stem cells to differeniate into thrombocytes?
  8. What hormone will influence hematopoietic stem cells to differeniate into white blood cells?
    • Interleukins
    • Colony stimulating factor
  9. What is another name for platlets?
  10. What is another name for red blood cells?
  11. What 2 major cell components do red blood cells lack?
    Nucleus and mitochondria
  12. What are the typical ranges of RBC counts for males, females, and children?
    • males - 4.6 to 6.2 million
    • females - 4.2 to 5.4 million
    • children - 4.5 to 5.1
  13. Which organs release erythropoietin to stimulate RBC production?
    Liver and kidneys
  14. What is another name for white blood cells?
  15. Which type of blood cells act as a transportation system for oxygen and carbon dioxide?
    Red Blood Cells
  16. What is the function of white blood cells?
    Protect against disease
  17. What are the 2 categories of white blood cells?
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes
  18. What are the 3 types of granulocyte white blood cells?
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils

  19. What are the 2 types of agranulocyte white blood cells?
    • Lymphocyte (T + B cells)
    • Monocyte
  20. What are the notable morphologies of neutrophils cells when viewing a stained slide? What type of stain is used?
    • Multi-lobed nuclues
    • Light purple granules

    acid-base stain
  21. What is the function of neutrophils?
    • To phagocytize
    • First to arrive at infections
  22. Describe the look of eosinophils on a stained slide. What type of stain is used?
    Acid stain

    • Bi-lobed nucleus
    • Deep red granules
  23. What is the function of eosinophils?
    • Moderates allergic reactions
    • Defends against parasitic worm infestations
  24. Describe the appearence of basophils under a microscope on a stained slide. What kind of stain is used?
    Basic stain

    • Deep blue granules
    • Similar to eosinophils in size and shape of nucleus
  25. What is the function of basophils?
    Release of histamine and heparin
  26. Describe the appearence of monocytes under a microscope on a stained slide. What type of stain is used?
    • They are the largest of all blood cells
    • Spherical, kidney-shaped, oval, or lobed nuclei
  27. What is the function of monocytes?
    • Leaves the bloodstream and becomes macrophages
    • Phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and other debris
  28. Describe the appearence of lymphocytes under a microscope on a stained slide. What type of stain is used?
    • Slightly larger that RBC
    • Large spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm
  29. What is the function of the lymphocytes?
    • Play an important role in immunity
    • Consist of T and B cells
    • B cells produce antibodies
  30. What is the main function of white blood cells?
    To protect against infections
  31. What is diapedesis?
    The movement of WBC from inside the capillary wall and into the tissue space outisde the blood vessel.
  32. What is a differential white blood cell count?
    A procedure that counts the number of WBC's per cubic millimeter of blood and then lists the percentages of types of leukocytes
  33. What is the typical range of WBC per cubic millimeter?
    5 to 10,000
  34. What is leukopenia?
    • Low WBC count
    • Below 5,000
  35. What is leukocytosis?
    • High WBC count
    • Above 10,000
  36. What are blood platlets?
    • Cell fragments of megakaryocytes
    • They lack a nucleus and are roughly half the size of a RBC
    • There are approximately 130-360,000 per cubic millimeter
    • They help repair damaged blood vessels by sticking to broken surfaces.
  37. What is blood plasma?
    It is the straw colored, liquid portion of the blood. It comprises 55% of the total blood volume and is 92% water.
  38. What is the main function of blood plasma?
    It helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and maintain pH
  39. What are plasma nutrients?
    The nutrients include amino acids, simple sugars, nucleotides, lipids
  40. What is the role of cholesterol in the body?
    It is the main component of the cell membrane.
  41. Name some of the noon-nitrogenous substances found in the blood.
    urea, uric acid, amino acids, creatine, creatinine, BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  42. What are electrolytes?
    There are ions absorbed from the intestine or released as by-products of cellular metabolism. They are required for vital functions of the body. Examples: Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Bicarbonate, Phosphate, sulfate
  43. What is hemostasis?
    The stoppage of bleeding
  44. What triggers a blood vessel spasm?
    Pain receptors, platlet release, serotonin
  45. What is a blood vessel spasm?
    It is when the smooth muscle in the vessel contracts, vasoconstiction, to slow blood flow in response to bleeding.
  46. What triggers platlet plug formation?
    Exposure of platelets to collagen
  47. What triggers blood coagulation?
    Cellular damage and blood contact with foreign surfaces
  48. What is the extrinsic clotting mechanism?
    A chemical outside fo the blood vessel triggers blood coagulation.

    Triggered by tissue thromboplastin.

    This is a positive feedback mechanism.
  49. What is the intrinsic clotting mechanism?
    It is triggered with a chemical inside the blood vessel activates blood coagulation. It is triggered by Hageman factor XII and when blood contacts a foreign surface.
  50. What chemical digests blood clots?
  51. What is the term for an abnormal blood clot?
    Thrombus - abnormal
  52. What is an embolus?
    A blood clot that moves though the blood vessels.
  53. What are some of the ways the body prevents coagulation?
    The smooth lining of blood vessels

    Fibrin will absorb the thrombin to prevent the clotting reaction from spreading

    Anti-thrombin inactivates additional thrombin by blocking its action on fibrinogen

    Basophils and mast cells secrete heparin (anti-coagulant)
  54. Agglutination
    clumping of red blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and an antigen
  55. Antigens
    a chemical that stimulates cells to produce antibodies
  56. Antibodies
    a protein that reacts agasinst a specific antigen
  57. How is a person's ABO blood group determined?
    Blood type is based on the presence or absence of two major antigens on red blood cell membranes
  58. What is RH blood group named for?
    It was named for the rhesus monkey
  59. What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
    It is a hemolytic disease of the newborn that is due to the Rh factor differences in mother and child.
  60. What is the difference between Rh+ and Rh- blood?
    Rh+ has the presence of antigen D or other Rh antigens on the red blood cell membranes. Rh- blood lacks these antigens.
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Chapter 14
2012-04-11 19:07:08

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