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- Performs functions important in maintaining homeostatis, including:
- .....1. Maintaining proper balance of water, salts, and acids in body by filtering blood as it flows thru the kidneys.
- .....2. Constantly filtering blood to remove urea & other waste materials from the bloodstream.
- .....3. Converting waste products & excess fluids into urine in kidneys
- .....4. Excreting waste products from the body via the urinary bladder
Urinary Tract (Urinary System)
Note: Adrenal glands, which are on top of the kidneys, are part of the endocrine system.
- .....1. Kidneys - 2
- .....2. Ureters - 2
- .....3. Bladder - 1
- .....4. Urethra - 1
- 1. Functions:
- .....a. Constantly filter blood to remove waste products & excess water.
- .....b. Waste products excreted as urine which is 95% water and 5% other wastes.
Retroperitoneal, one on each side of the vertebral column below the diaphragm.
- 4. Structures:
- .....a. Renal cortex - outer region of kidney
- .......... (1.) Nephron - functional unit of kidneys
- ................. (a.) Glomerulus - cluster of capillaries in each nephron
- ................. (b.) Bowman's Capsule - cup-shaped membrane surrounding each glomerulus
- .....b. Medulla - inner region of the kidney
- .......... (1.) Tubule - urine-collecting tube (most are in medulla)
- .....c. Renal Pelvis - funnel-shaped area within each kidney (surrounded by renal cortex & medulla)
Means pertaining to the kidneys
1. Outer region of kidney
2. Contains over 1 million nephrons - microscopic units
1. Inner region of kidney
2. Contains most of the urine-collecting tubules.
1. Functional unit of kidney
2. More than 1 million
of these microscopic units in the renal cortex.
- 3. Units form urine by the processes of:
- .....a. Filtration
- .....b. Reabsorption
- .....c. Secretion
Return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed during filtration.
1. Blood enters kidney thru renal artery & flows into nephrons
2. Blood is filtered in the capillaries of the glomeruli
3. Blood leaves the kidney thru the renal vein.
4. Waste products filtered out of the blood remain in kidney where they pass thru a series of urine-collecting tubules.
5. When this is completed, the urine is transported to the renal pelvis where it is collected in preparation for entry into the ureters.
Pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color.
Note: The color of urine can be influened by normal factors such as the amount of liquid consumed. It can also be changed by diseases & medications.
1. Cluster of capillaries in each nephron.
2. Surrounded by cup-shaped Bowman's capsule.
1. Funnel-shaped area within each kidney
2. Surrounded by Renal cortex & medulla
3. Where newly formed urine collects before it flows into the ureter.
1. Two narrow tubes (about 10-12 inches long)
2. Transport urine from kidney to bladder
Series of wave-like contractions move urine down each ureter to bladder.
1. In the walls of the urinary bladder.
2. Urine drains from ureters into bladder thru these.
- 1. Structure:
- .....a. Hollow muscular organ. Stores about 1 pint of urine.
- .....b. Lined with rugae, which are folds that allow it to expand and contract.
- .....c. Trigone - smooth triangular area on inner surface of bladder (located between openings of ureters & urethra)
: Reservoir for urine
before it is excreted from the body.
: Bladder located in the anterior portion of the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis
Tube extending from bladder to outside of the body to elminate urine.
- 2. Structures:
- .....a. Urinary sphincters (2) - One located at either end of urethra to control flow of urine out of the urethra thru urethral meatus.
.....b. Urethral meatus (urinary meatus)
- External opening of the urethra.
- .....c. Female Urethra:
- ..........(1.) Urethra approximately 1.5 inches long
- ..........(2.) Urethra meatus - located between clitoris & opening of the vagina
- ..........(3.) Conveys only urine.
- .....d. Male Urethra:
- ..........(1.) Urethra approimately 8 inches long
- ..........(2.) Urethral meatus - located at tip of penis
- ..........(3.) Urethra transports both urine & semen.
- .....e. Prostate:
- ..........(1.) Part of the male reproductive system.
- ..........(2.) Surrounds urethra
- ..........(3.) Most disorders of prostate affect male's ability to urinate.
Urination (voiding or micturation)
- 1. Normal process of excreting urine:
- .....a. As bladder fills up with urine, presure is placed on the based of the urethra
- .....b. This pressure results in urge to urinate (micturate)
3. This action forces urine thru the urethra & out thru the urinary meatus.
- 2. Urination requires the coordinated:
- .....a. Contraction of the bladder muscles
- .....b. Relaxation of the sphincters
Physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the kidneys.
Physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the urinary system of females & the genitourinary system of males.
Refers to both the genital and urinary organs.
Medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt.
1. Procedure to remove waste products from
the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
- 2. There are two types:
- .....a. Hemodialysis
- .....b. Peritoneal dialysis
1. Process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood.
2. Treatment is performed on a hemodialysis unit
(commonly called artificial kidney
- 3. Method:
- .....a. Shunt implanted in patient's arm is connected to hemodialysis unit
- .....b. Arterial blood flows thru the filters of the unit .....c. Filter contains dialysate, a solution made of water & electrolytes.
- .....d. Dialysate cleanses blood by removing waste products & excess fluids.
- .....e. Cleansed blood is returned to the body thru a vein
4. Treatments each take several hours and must be repeated about 3 times per week.
Solution of water & electrolytes used in dialysis filters.
An artificial passage that allows blood to flow between body and hemodialysis unit.
1. Process by which waste products are filter directly from the patient's blood
2. Treatment uses the lining of the peritoneal cavity to act as the filter to remove waste from the blood.
- 3. This type of dialysis is performed for:
- .....a. Renal failure
- .....b. Certain types of poisoning.
3. General Method
solution flows into the peritoneal cavity thru a Tenchkoff peritoneal catheter implanted in the abdominal wall.
- 4. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis:
- .....a. Provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about daily activities.
- .....b. Dialysate solution is instilled from a plastic container worn under patient's clothing.
- .....c. About every 4 hours the used solution is drained back into this bag & the bag is discarded.
- .....d A new bag is attached, the solution is instilled and the process continues.
during the night while the patient sleeps.
- 4. Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis:
- .....a. Uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid
Freeing kidney of adhesions
A pathologic condition in which there is destruction of renal cells.
Note: The suffix '-lysis' means 'setting free,' but also means 'destruction.'
Band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally.
Surgical fixation of a floating kidney
1. Establishment of an opening from the renal pelvis to the exterior of the body.
2. Used in a kidney affected by hydronephrosis
3. Allows bypassing of the ureter because the urine from the kidney is drained thru the back
Surgical repair of the renal pelvis.
1. Surgical incision into the renal pelvis
2. Procedure performed to correct an obstruction of the junction between the renal pelvis & the ureter.
Renal transplantation (kidney transplant)
1. Grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys.
2. A single transplanted kidney, from either a living or nonliving donor, is capable of adequently performing all kidney functions.
Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
1. Destruction of stones with use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling thru water or gel
2. The fragments of these stones are then excreted in the urine.
Means situated or occurring outside the body
Means to crush a stone.
Surgical removal of a nephrolith thru an incision in the kidney
- 1. Performed by making a small incision in the back
- 2. Inserting a nephroscope to crush & remove a kidney stone.
Performed thru the skin.
Specialized endoscope used in the treatment of the kidneys.
Surgical removal of a ureter
Surgical repair of a ureter.
Surgical suturing of a ureter
Surgical removal or part or all of the urinary bladder
Surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall.
Surgical suturing of the bladder.
Surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder.
Note: This term is also used to describe a physical examination position.
- Performed to:
- 1. Withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes2. Control incontinence
- 3. Place fluid, such as a chemotherapy solution, into the bladder
- 1. Urethral catheterization: Insert tube along urethra & into the bladder
- 2. Indwelling catheter: Catheter remains inside the body for a prolonged time
3. Suprapubic catheteriztion
: Catheter placed into bladder thru a small incision made thru the abdominal wall above the public bone.
Performed by inserting tube along urethra into bladder
Catheter that remains inside the body for a prolonged period of time
Catheter placed into bladder thru a small incision made thru abdominal wall from just above pubic bone.
Surgical incision made in urinary meatus to enlarge the opening.
1. Surgical fixation of the urethra.
2. This procedure is usually performed to correct urinary stress incontinence.
Surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin.
Surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture.
Term used to describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer.
- 2. Decribes the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function by:
- ......a. Surgery
- ......b. Hormones
- ......c. Drugs
- ......d. Heat
- ......e. Chemicals
- ......f. Electrocautery
- ......g. Other methods.
1. Surgical removal or all or part of the prostate gland
2. This procedure is performed to treat prostate cancer or to reduce an enlarged prostate gland.
1. Surgical removal of the ENTIRE prostate gland performed thru the abdomen.
2. This includes removal of the prostate, seminal vesicles, & some surrounding tissue.
Transurethral prostatectomy (TURP - transurethral resection of the prostate)
Removal of an overgrowth of tissues from the prostate gland thru a resectoscope.
Specialized endoscope instrument that resembles a cystoscope, used for a TURP.
Radiation therapy & Hormone therapy
Additional treatments used to control prostate cancer.
1. Series of pelvic floor muscle exercises used to strengthen muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women.
2. Named for Dr. Arnold Kegel.
1. Program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals between scheduled urination.
2. The goal is to reestablish voluntary bladder control & break the cycle of frequency, urgency, & urge incontinence.