It is the man's responsibility to decide where to go, prepare the car, get money, pick up the date, open the door, pay the bill, and so on, and women were on the receiving end of these actions.
Concept of Gender
The most significant dimension of sexuality, it relates to the biological and social contexts of sexual behavior and desire.
Concept of Sex
It is closely bound up with gender, the double standard that "men care more about sex" while "women care more about love."
Concept of Love
Romantic love is essentially, but not exclusively, sexual. It is a complex social and psychological state involving thoughts and feelings that provide humans with a powerful sense of intimicay and self-worth.
Findings of the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS)
People's sexual choices are shaped by social networks in which they operate.
The practices that enforce heterosexual behavior as normal and natural while stigmatizing other forms of sexual expression.
Dating and Courtship Varied by Class
In general, the higher the class, the more control parents have over the dating activities of their children.
Individuals date and mate within their class, race, ethnicity, religion, and education level.
Women's principal avenue for upward mobility in societies that prescribe domesticity for women and limit their access to workplace opportunities.
A major break with the past - shifting the role of initiating relationships from women to men and involved money.
Economic and changes that impact relationships
Some men have erectile problems, while women postpone sex.
Waller's Principle of Least Interest
The person with the least interest in continuing the relationship has the power to control it.
What percent of adults will marry?
What percent of marriages will end in divorce?
Compare the statistics of unmarried adults between 30-34 now to 1970
The proportion of unmarried adults has more than tripled the percentage.
How longevity affects divorce rates
People change through their lives, alternating personality, identity, and needs. With longer life spans, people are more likely to grow apart.
How marriage affects health for Men
Greater health benefits
Receive more social support in commitment and caring from their spouses than they may return
Tend to work more outside the home and does not equal women’s work
How marriage affects health of Women
Less health benefits then men
Benefits depend more on the quality of the union
Troubled marriages mean poorer health
Relatively disadvantaged (patriarchy)
Why do men who are married have better health?
Married men have wives who feed them more vegetables, schedule his medical checkups, and shoulder much of the housework and emotional work.
Benefits of Marriage
Better physical and mental health
Better sex lives
More economic resources
A husband and wife who have successfully reconstructed gender role and are equitable in their interactions.
Future of Marriage (Conclusions of Chapter 8)
The institution of marriage is not dying; rather, it is adapting. As a result, marriage is not declining but is being transformed.
Social Construction of Parenting
Argues that what seems "natural" or "real" depends on time, place and social location, as a result of economic or other social forces.
Characteristics of First-Born Children
- Have a strong tendency to adopt the values of the parents and to be less influenced by peers
- Tend to be more achievement oriented.
- Female firstborns tend to be more religious, more sexually conservative and more accepting of traditional feminine roles.
Benefits of Parenthood
Symbolic immortality, enhanced status, and a sense of meaning for parents' lives.
Effects of day care
Under the right situation, it can be a positive experience for a child.
30% of people ages 18 - 34 live at home with their parents - fit the stereotype of being unfocused, lazy, and immature. However, the majority have been forced to turn to their parents because of the high cost of education, unmarried parenthood, loss of jobs and homes or low-wage entry-level jobs.
Bilateral Mode of Parent-Child Relations
Children, while being shaped by parents, are also active in shaping their parents.
Cost of Raising a Child
$1.6 million to adulthood.
Negative effect on marital happiness
Negative personality traits
May not return parent's love and may be troublesome
Stress over child's development and progress in school
Relationship between social class and fertility
The higher the income, the lower the fertility rate
Most Common Path to Childlessness
A couple makes a series of decisions to postpone childbearing until a time when it is no longer considered a desireable choice.
Findings of emotional health of children of gay parents
Not a single study has found children of gay or lesbian parents to be disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to children of heterosexual parents.
Dillemas of Reproductive Technologies
Increased probability of multiple births
Expensive cost of procedures
Determining sex of child
Obtaining "designer genes"
Reasons of Smaller Families
Voluntary childlessness and delayed childbearing
Types of Family Violence
Intimate Partner Violence
Types of Partner Violence
Situational Couple Violence
The attempts to dominate one’s partner and to exert general control over the relationship, domination that is manifested in the use of a wide range of power and control tactics, including violence.
Situational Couple Violence
Intimate partner abuse that is not embedded in such a general pattern of controlling behavior, but occurs when specific conflict situations escalate to violence.
Relationship between family as a power system and greater inequality
Because the power is unevenly distributed and power conflicts arise the possibility of conflict is great.
Where is Sibling Abuse Most Likely to Occur?
In families where there is physical abuse by the parents.
Overall relationship between domestic and institutional violence
Many customs and beliefs support violence.
Greater risks of violence
Economic inequality combined with racial or ethnic discrimination leads to higher rates of violent crime in the US. The way the family is organized encourages conflict.
Reasons why a woman may stay in an abused relationship
Relationship between abuse and alcohol
Alcohol does not cause abuse, but can accentuate the abuse.
Reasons for Elder Abuse
Living arrangements, social isolation, dementia, personal characteristics of the abusers (mental health, hostility, and alcohol abuse), ageism.
A coping mechanism some people employ in order to survive difficult or abusive circumstances. An abused child or spouse may eventually learn to remain passive and compliant at the hands of his or her abuser, since efforts to fight back or escape appear futile.