astronomy chapter 6

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astronomy chapter 6
2012-04-06 22:57:20

Key terms and concepts- the science of stars
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  1. nucleus
    the central core of an atom containing protons and neutrons, carries a net positive charge.
  2. proton
    a positively charged atomic particle contained in the nucleus of an atom. The nucleus of a hydrogen atom
  3. neutron
    an atomic particle with no charge and about the same mass as a proton
  4. electron
    low-mass atomic particle carrying a negative charge
  5. isotope
    an atom that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
  6. ionized
    the condition of an atom that has lost of gained one or more electrons
  7. ion
    an atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons
  8. molecule
    two or more atoms bonded together
  9. binding energy
    the energy needed to pull and electron away from its atom
  10. quantum mechanics
    the study of the behaviour of atoms and atomic particles
  11. excited atom
    an atom in which an electron has moved from a lower to higher energy level
  12. thermal energy
    the energy of the movement among the atoms and molecules of an object
  13. black body radiation
    • radiation emitted by a hypothetical perfect radiator.
    • the spectrum is continuous
    • the wavelength is maximum emmision depends on the body's temperature
  14. joule
    • a unit of energy equilavent to a force of 1 newton acting over a distance of 1 meter.
    • on joule per second equals one watt of power
  15. continuous spectrum
    a spectrum in which there are no absorption or emission lines

  16. absorption spectrum
    a spectrum that contains absorption lines caused by photons being absorbed by atoms or molecules

  17. eimission spectrum
    a bright line in a spectrum containing emission lines

  18. absorption line
    • a dark line in a spectrum
    • is produced by the absense of photons absorbed by atoms or molecules
  19. Kirchoffs laws
  20. spectral star class
    • a stars position in the temperature classifications
    • O, B, A, F, G, K, or M
    • is based on the appearence of the stars spectrum
  21. Doppler effect
    the change in the wavelength of radiation due to the relative radial motion of source and observer
  22. blueshift
    a doppler shit toward shorter wavelengths caused by velocity of approach
  23. redshift
    a doppler shift twoard longer wavelength caused by a velocity of recession
  24. radial velocity (V)
    a component of an object's velocity directed away from or towards earth