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How big is a typical human brain?
1300 cc and 3 pounds
What are the 4 regions of the brain?
What are brain folds called?
What are brain depressions called?
What does rostral mean?
What does caudal mean?
What are the 5 regions of the nueral tube?
- telencephalon: cerebrum
- diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
- mesencephalon: midbrain
- metencephalon: pons and cerebellum
- myelencephalon: medulla oblongata
Is gray or white matter on the outside region of the brain?
What is the inner region of white matter called?
What are the three layers of the meninges?
- pia mater
- arachnoid mater
- dura mater
Where in the meninges does infection usually occur?
What are the two layers of the dura mater?
- meningeal: deep to periosteal
- periosteal: internal surface of cranial bones
What are the blood filled spaces between dura mater called?
dural venous sinuses
What seperates the dura mater from the bones of the skull?
epidural space, which is usually not a space at all unless it has trauma
What are the 4 septa of the dura mater?
- falx cerebri: largest, seperates into longitudinal fissure. Anterior attachment is crista galli and posterior attachment is tentorium cerebelli
- tentorium cerebelli: seperates temporal and occipital lobes. Has an anterior gap for the brainstem called tentorial notch
- falx cerebelli: divides left and right cerebellar hemispheres
- diphragma sellae: roof of sella turcica
Where are the 4 ventricles located in the brain?
- 1-2: cerebrum
- 3: diencephalon
- 4: tetrahedron shaped between pons and cerebellum
Where is cerebrospinal fluid located?
in the subarachnoid space and ventricles
What are some important functions of the CSF?
Where is CSF formed?
in the choroid plexi
What is the rate of CSF production?
What is the total volume of CSF in the subarachnoid space at a given time?
What extends through the dura mater into the dural venous sinuses to alow CSF to return to the blood?
arachnoid villi, collections of which are called arachnoid granulations
Where in the brain is a lack of a blood-brain barrier?
- choroid plexi
- pineal gland
What is gap seperatin the cerebral hemispheres called?
What white matter allows for communication between the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum?
What are the 5 lobes of each cerebral hemisphere?
- frontal lobe
- parietal lobe
- temporal lobe
- occipital lobe
- insula: inside all the lobes
What is rebounding injury of the brain called?
What is the diencephalon composed of?
- epithalumus: houses pineal gland, secretes melatonin
- thalamus: relay point for all sensory information
- hypothalamus: infundibulum runs from hypothalamus to pituitary gland.
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
- influence heart rate, blood pressure, digestive activities, and respiration
- master control of the ndocrine system
- body's thermostat
- controls emotional responses
- controls hunger
- thirst center
- regulates circadian rythms
What are the three regions of the brainstem?
- medulla oblongata: formed from myelencephalon
What is crossing over of nerve tracts called and where does it occur?
decussation occurs in the medulla oblongata
What are some functions of the medulla oblongata?
- snesory relay for some cranial nerves
- relay to the thalamus
- cardiac center
- vasomotor center, controls contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles in arterioles
- respiratory center
- involved in diaphragmatic spasm (coughing, sneezing, salivation, swallowing)
What is the white region of the cerebellum called?
What does the cerebellum do?
controls equilibrium, precise movements, resting muscle tone, and posture
What are the two components of the reticular formation?
- motor component: regulates muscle tone
- sensory (component reticular activating system, RAS): maintains state of awarenes or conciousness
What is referred to as the emotional brain?
What is the sequence of events called when the cerebrum pushes down through the tentorial incisure and what is the sequence?
- rostrocaudal brain deterioration
- a. brain swelles and leads to hypoxia (loss of oxygen)
- b. pressure on RAS leads to unconciousness
- c. decorticate posturing occurs (like holding a cord of wood)
- d. decerbrate posturing occurs (like waiter reaching for a tip)
- e. brain death
What is a stroke called and what causes it?
- cerebrovascular accident
- thrombus in artery or aneurysm that ruptures
What is hemiplegia and what causes it?
contralateral paralysis, caused by stroke