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Why Do People Join Groups?
Forming relationships with others fulfills a number of basic human needs.
There may be an innate need to belong to social groups.
Groups become an important part of people’s identity, helping them to define who they are.
shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave.
They specify how people who occupy certain positions in the group should behave.
specify how all group members should behave
refers to qualities of the group that bind members together and promote liking between members.
the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks (i.e. dominant response) and worse on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated.
The presence of others produces
Three theories suggest the presence of others increases arousal because they:
- - Make us more alert and vigilant.
- - Make us apprehensive about how we are being evaluated (evaluation apprehension).
- - Distract us from the task at hand.
the tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated
In order to explain why social loafing happens, research suggests when people are not worried about being evaluated:
- - They are more relaxed.
- - They are less likely to tense up on a difficult task
Research shows that the tendency to loaf is stronger in:
- - Men than in women.
- - Individualist cultures than in collectivist cultures.
the loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a group, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts.
The key reason why deindividuation leads to impulsive acts
the presence of others
- - The presence of others and disguises makes people feel less accountable for their actions.
- - The presence of others lowers self awareness, which shifts people’s attention away from their moral standards.
- - The presence of others increases the extent to which people obey the group norms.
is any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving.
is the combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual.
is a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner.
is the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members.
The great person theory of leadership
suggests that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the nature of the situation facing the leader.
The contingency theory of leadership
suggests that leadership effectiveness depends on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is, and the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group.
A task-oriented leader
is concerned more with getting the job done than with the feelings of and relationships between workers.
A relationship-oriented leader
is concerned primarily with the feelings of and relationships between the workers.
Fiedler (1967,1978) suggests:
- - Task-oriented leaders perform best when situational control is high or low.
- - Relationship-oriented leaders perform best when situational control is moderate.
A social dilemma
is a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
- is a means of encouraging cooperation by:
- - At first acting cooperatively
- - Then always responding the way the opponent did on the previous occasion (i.e. cooperatively or competitively).
Research (Deutsch & Kraus, 1960, 1962) suggest that threats are not an effective means of reducing conflict.
- - Can resolve conflict, if it fosters trust.
- - Cannot resolve conflict, if it conveys threats.
- Is a form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which:
- - Offers and counteroffers are made.
- - A solution occurs only when both parties agree.
An integrative solution
a solution to a conflict whereby:
The parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests.
Each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side.